The ever-increasing cases of acquired brain injury (ABI), especially among young people, have prompted a rapid progress in research involving neurological disorders. One important path is the concept of relearning, which attempts to help people regain basic motor and cognitive skills lost due to illness or accident. The goals of relearning are twofold. First, there must exist a way to properly assess the necessities of an affected person, leading to a diagnosis, followed by a recommendation regarding the exercises, tests and tasks to perform, and second, there must be a way to confirm the results obtained from these recommendations in order to fine-tune and personalize the relearning process. This presents a challenge, as there is a deeply-rooted duality between the personalized and the generalized approach. In this work we propose a personalization algorithm based on the ant colony optimization (ACO), which is a bio-inspired meta-heuristic. As we show, the stochastic nature of ants has certain similarities to the human learning process. Applied Soft Computing 47 (2016) 316-331 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2016.04.039 21/130 (Q1) We combine the adaptive and exploratory capabilities of ACO systems to respond to rapidly changing environments and the ubiquitous human factor. Finally, we test the proposed solution extensively in various scenarios, achieving high quality results.