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El autor Antonio Manuel Gutierrez ha publicado 4 artículo(s):

2 - Modelling Citizen Letters for Public Services automation

The publication and, when it is possible, automation of public services on Internet provides advantages for citizens and governance. The former because promotes the transparency and control over governance actions and avoids unneeded presencial inquiries and the latter because information systems help to decrease human resources costs. A number of efforts have been performed by public administrations to provide precise service information online. As this service information is incrementally published, manual interaction to navigate and query these services becomes a difficult task that automated mechanisms could support based on service catalogs. In this paper we introduce an ongoing work proposing the use of ontologies to enable the automated processing -i.e. search and validation- of these service catalogs.

Autores: Antonio Manuel Gutiérrez / Fernanda Massena / Claudia Cappelli / Manuel Resinas / Flavia Santoro / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave:

3 - Automated Validation of Compensable SLAs (Summary)

A Service Level Agreement (SLA) regulates the provisioning of a service by defining a set of guarantees. Each guarantee sets a Service Level Objective (SLO) on some service metrics, and optionally a compensation that is applied when the SLO is unfulfilled (the compensation would be a penalty) or overfulfilled (the compensation would be a reward). For instance, Amazon is penalised with a 10% in service credits if the availability of the Elastic Cloud Computing service drops below 99.95%.
Currently, there are software tools and research proposals that use the information about compensations to automate and optimise certain parts of the service management. However, they assume that compensations are well defined, which is too optimistic in some circumstances and can lead to undesirable situations. For example, an unbounded, automated penalty was discarded in 2005 by the UK Royal Mail company after causing a loss of 280 million pounds in one year and a half.

In the article «Automated Validation of Compensable SLAs», published in IEEE Transactions on Services Computing (Early Access), and available at, we aim at answering the question «How can compensations be automatically validated?». To this end, we build on the compensable SLA model proposed in a previous work to provide a technique that leverages constraint satisfaction problem solvers to automatically validate them. We also present a materialisation of the model in iAgree, a language to specify SLAs and a tooling support that implements our whole approach. Our proposal has been evaluated by modelling and analysing the compensations of 24 SLAs of real-world scenarios including 319 guarantee terms. As a result, our technique has proven to be useful for detecting mistakes that are typically derived not only from the manual specification of SLAs in natural language, but also from the complex nature of compensation definitions. Thus, we found that nine guarantees with compensations that were not properly defined in the original SLAs specified in natural language. Specifically, five were wrongly specified by Verizon, and four were wrongly specified by the outsourcing service hiring of the regional governments of: Northwest Territories of Canada, and Andalusia in Spain. Therefore, our proposal can pave the way for using compensable SLAs in a safer and more reliable way.

Autores: Carlos Müller / Antonio Manuel Gutierrez / Pablo Fernandez / Octavio Martín-Díaz / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Analysis - Compensation - CSP - Penalty - Reward - SLA - validation - WS-Agreement

4 - Empirical software product line engineering: A systematic literature review. An IST journal publication

The adoption of Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) is usually only based on its theoretical benefits instead of empirical evidences. In fact, there is no work that synthesizes the empirical studies on SPLE. This makes it difficult for researchers to base their contributions on previous works validated with an empirical strategy. The objective of this work is to discover and summarize the studies that have used empirical evidences in SPLE limited to those ones with the intervention of humans. This will allow evaluating the quality and to know the scope of these studies over time. Doing so, research opportunities can arise. A systematic literature review was conducted. The scope of the work focuses on those studies in which there is human intervention and were published between 2000 and 2018. We considered peer-reviewed papers from journals and top software engineering conferences. Out of a total of 1880 studies in the initial set, a total of 62 primary studies were selected after applying a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria. We found that, approximately 56+AFwAJQ of the studies used the empirical case study strategy while the rest used experimental strategies. Around 86+AFwAJQ of the case studies were performed in an industrial environment showing the penetration of SPLE in industry. The interest of empirical studies has been growing since 2008. Around 95.16+AFwAJQ of the studies address aspects related to domain engineering while application engineering received less attention. Most of the experiments and case study evaluated showed an acceptable level of quality. The first study found dates from 2005 and since then, the interest in the empirical SPLE has increased.

Autores: Ana E. Chacón-Luna / Antonio Manuel Gutiérrez / José A. Galindo / David Benavides / 
Palabras Clave: Case Study - Empirical strategies - experiment - software product lines - Systematic literature review