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El autor Elena Navarro ha publicado 13 artículo(s):

1 - Applying thematic analysis to define an awareness interpretation for collaborative computer games

Indices de calidad: Índice de impacto: 1.569, Q1 Posición que ocupa la revista en la categoría: 16/106 Número de citas: 3 Context Collaborative computer games have evolved from single-player to massively multiplayer awareness-demanding games, usually involving collaboration to achieve team goals. As a consequence of such evolution, these players should be provided with awareness information that enables them to perform collaborative tasks with other team members. Objective The objective of this work is the analysis of current awareness interpretations in order to develop an awareness interpretation that collects the awareness needs of such games. Method This analysis has been conducted by means of a step-by-step Thematic Analysis of current interpretations that led us to extract the most relevant awareness elements defined in existing interpretations. The developed awareness interpretation was empirically evaluated by means of several surveys aimed at assessing whether the implementation of the interpretation elements in a game would improve the players enjoyment. Results The Thematic Synthesis Analysis concluded that none of the current awareness interpretations can deal properly with collaborative computer games, specifically due to collaboration and social & group dynamics. This Thematic Synthesis Analysis led us to coin Gamespace Awareness, a new awareness interpretation based on a combination of the previously analyzed awareness interpretations, which is suitable for collaborative computer games. The interpretation was positively evaluated for two games, namely a first person shooter and a real-time strategy game. Conclusions Gamespace Awareness combines the potential awareness elements needed for collaborative computer games, making it possible to identify the awareness requirements of these games from the very beginning.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Elena Navarro / Pascual Gonzalez / Víctor López-Jaquero / Francisco Montero / 
Palabras Clave: Awareness - Collaborative computer games - Empirical evaluation - Game development - Gamespace awareness - Thematic synthesis

2 - Past and future of software architectures for context-aware systems: A systematic mapping study

There is a growing interest on context-aware systems in recent years. Con-text-aware systems are able to change their behaviour depending on new conditions regarding the user, the platform and the environment. These sys-tems are evolving towards interacting with the user in a transparent and ubiq-uitous manner, especially by means of different types of sensors, which can gather a wide range of data from the user, the platform the user is interacting with, and the environment where such interaction is taking place. It is worth noting that the software architecture of a system is a key artefact during its development and its adaptation process. Hence, the definition of the soft-ware architecture becomes essential while developing context-aware systems since it should reflect how the context is tackled for adaptation purposes. With the aim of studying this issue, we have designed and conducted a sys-tematic mapping study to provide an overview about the different architec-tural approaches used in context-aware systems. One of the main findings of this study is that there are not many software architecture proposals that deal with context-awareness in an explicit way during the adaptation process. It was also detected that there are Human Computer Interaction (HCI) works that focus on context-aware adaptations but neglect partially or completely any possible change in the system architecture during the adaptation process. Due to this, we perceived a need to analyse what research works highlight the use of context and its relationship to the software architecture in existing context-aware systems. Therefore, this mapping study attempts to bridge the gap between Software Architecture and HCI in order to align the adaptation at the architectural level (changes in the configuration of architectural com-ponents) and at the HCI level (changes in the interaction modality or the user interface in general).

Autores: Cristina Roda / Elena Navarro / Víctor López-Jaquero / Uwe Zdun / Georg Simhandl / 
Palabras Clave: Environment - Human-computer interaction - Platform - Quality of adaptation - Quasi-gold standard - User

3 - A Comparison of Message Brokers for Telerehabilitation Systems

Providing telerehabilitation services entails a lot of challengessuch as the variety of sensors to be used, the amount of data generated,oering real-time feedback to patients or the need of asynchronous communication.However, a typical Cloud Infrastructure would miss harddeadlines due latency on the network. Edge Computing plays a fundamentalrole in this scenario as it moves processing closer to the user, wipingout this delay while still needing to face the aforementioned challenges.Among the most well known patterns to be used for addressing suchchallenges we nd message brokers. Considering the relevance of messagebrokers as an alternative for the development of telerehabilitation systems,their selection becomes a critical issue. For this reason, in this paper wepresent a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the most well knownmessage brokers considering both aspects.

Autores: Blas Gómez / Elena Navarro / 
Palabras Clave: Edge Computing - Message brokers - Qualitative Analysis - Quantitative Analysis - Telerehabilitation systems

4 - Assessing the impact of the awareness level on a co-operative game

Context. When playing a co-operative game, being aware of your collabora-tors (where they are playing, what they are doing, the abilities they have, etc.) is essential for achieving the game’s goals. This led to the definition of Gamespace Awareness in order to guide in the identification of the aware-ness needs in the form of a compilation of the awareness elements that a co-operative game should feature. Objective. Gamespace Awareness does not establish how much awareness information players must be provided with. This constitutes the main motivation for this work: to assess the impact of different levels of Gamespace Awareness elements on a co-operative game. Method. A multiplayer action game was developed that supports three dif-ferent awareness configurations, each one featuring different awareness lev-els (high, medium and low). The impact of these awareness levels was meas-ured as regards game score, time, players’ happiness while playing, enjoy-ment and perceived usefulness. Several techniques such as subjective sur-veys and facial expression analysis were used to measure these factors. Re-sults. The analysis of the results shows that the higher the awareness, the bet-ter the game score. However, the highest level of player happiness was not achieved with the most awareness-enabled configuration; we found that the players’ enjoyment depends not only on their awareness level but also on their expertise level. Finally, the awareness elements related to the present and the future were the most useful, as could be expected in a multiplayer action game. Conclusions. The results showed that the medium level aware-ness obtained the best results. We therefore concluded that a certain level of awareness is necessary, but that excessive awareness could negatively affect the game experience.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Nelly Condori-Fernández / Elena Navarro / Pascual Gonzalez / Patricia Lago / 
Palabras Clave: Awareness - Co-operative game - Face analysis - Gamespace awareness

5 - Herramienta Colaborativa Multidispositivo para la Edición de Modelos basada en EMF

En este trabajo se presenta un editor de modelos que permitirá el trabajo colaborativo con modelos pertenecientes a cualquier metamodelo creado con EMF. Además, este editor permite su uso desde una gran variedad de dispositivos, facilitando una colaboración efectiva gracias al awareness que proporciona tanto sobre el propio proceso de edición como de los usuarios que en ella colaboran. Además, la implementación como servicios webs de la de gestión de modelos EMF y del soporte a características de awareness permite su reutilización en futuras aplicaciones.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Arturo C. Rodríguez / Elena Navarro / Pascual González / 
Palabras Clave: colaboración - ditor modelos - EMF - multidispositivo - servicio web - Workspace Awareness

6 - Diseño e Implementación de un Sistema Ciber-físico-social para la Monitorización y Prevención de Infecciones por COVID-19 en Residencias de Ancianos

La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha afectado negativamente a la sociedad en todo el mundo causando millones de contagios y fallecidos, especialmente entre personas mayores. Para tratar de impedir la expansión del virus en las residencias de ancianos españolas, se ha desarrollado un prototipo de CPSS que monitoriza la actividad y ciertas constantes fisiológicas de los usuarios y del perso-
nal de una residencia, así como la calidad del aire de las instalaciones. El sistema ha sido diseñado siguiendo un proceso para el ciclo de gestión de datos resultante del estudio y la combinación de diversas propuestas arquitectónicas e incorporando aspectos de Digital Twins. El prototipo desarrollado se ha configurado para su implantación en una residencia real, simulando el máximo número de usuarios y de empleados, así como las estancias comunes más relevantes. La evaluación de la calidad del prototipo se ha llevado a cabo siguiendo una metodología específica de evaluación de CPSS combinada con estándares ISO de calidad del software. Los resultados de la evaluación determinan que el sistema es fiable y eficiente en el desempeño

Autores: David Muñoz / Aurora Macías / Elena Navarro / 
Palabras Clave: ciclo de gestión de datos - CPSS - digital twins - Gerontotecnología

7 - A CSCW Requirements Engineering CASE Tool: Development and Usability Evaluation

An experiment was performed in order to assess the usability of CSRML Tool 2012 (CT’12), a tool to specify the requirements of CSCW systems. The effectiveness and efficiency of CT’12 were evaluated by means of several experimental tasks. Moreover, the user’s satisfaction was evaluated by using both a classical survey and analyzing the participants’ facial expressions when performing the experiments. Furthermore, this evaluation has been reported by using the ISO/IEC 25062:2006 [2], thus making its results comparable with other usability assessments which follow this international standard. Finally, details about how to develop a CASE toll for a Domain Specific Language was provided in a tutorial style.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Elena Navarro / Víctor López-Jaquero / Francisco Montero / Pascual González / 
Palabras Clave: Usability evaluation; CASE tool; CSRML; Requirements engineering; CSCW; ISO/IEC

8 - CSRML Tool: una Herramienta para el Modelado de Requisitos de Sistemas Colaborativos

Cada vez más aplicaciones incluyen algún tipo de soporte a la realización de tareas colaborativas. Como para cualquier otro tipo de sistema, una especificación de requisitos precisa es uno de los pilares básicos en el desarrollo de este tipo de sistemas con soporte a la colaboración. Sin embargo, este tipo de sistemas poseen un tipo especial de requisitos difícil de especificar con las técnicas de Ingeniería de Requisitos (IR) tradicionales. Estudios experimentales previos muestran que la especificación del conocimiento o la percepción de una situación o hecho (awareness), necesarios para que los usuarios puedan llevar a cabo tareas colaborativas, puede ser excesivamente compleja, o incluso incompleta, cuando se usan la técnicas clásicas de IR. Para solventar este problema, se ha desarrollado CSRML (Collaborative Systems Requirements Modeling Language), una extensión del lenguaje orientado a objetivos i* para especificar requisitos de sistemas colaborativos. En este trabajo se presenta CSRML Tool: una herramienta que da soporte al lenguaje CSRML. Gracias a esta herramienta, se podrán modelar los distintos diagramas que conforman la especificación de los requisitos de un sistema colaborativo utilizando CSRML, así como comprobar la validez de los mismos con respecto al meta-modelo de CSRML.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Elena Navarro / Víctor López-Jaquero / Francisco Montero / Pascual González / 
Palabras Clave: CSRML - ingeniería de requisitos - Sistemas colaborativos - Visual Studio - Visualization and Modeling SDK - Workspace Awareness

9 - Analyzing the Understandability of Requirements Engineering Languages for CSCW Systems: A Family of Experiments

Context of the proposal: Collaborative Systems
Nowadays, even classic applications like text processors are collaborative. For instance, Google Docs [2] enables several users to edit a text document simultaneously . These collaborative text processors are a good example of CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) systems [3], which are systems whose users can perform collaboration, communication and coordination tasks (3C). Collaborative systems, in a similar way to classical single-user systems, have to be specified by means of a set of requirements, whose accuracy and suitability are key to achieve the quality of the developed system. The main difference between the requirements of single-user systems and CSCW systems is the highly non-functional nature of the latter, because of the users’ need of being aware of the presence of other users with whom to perform the above mentioned 3C tasks, that is, the Workspace Awareness (WA). In order to deal with the specification of this special type of systems, we conducted several empirical evaluations in order to check which is the most adequate Requirements Engineering technique to model both awareness and quality requirements of CSCW systems. We concluded that the i* Framework [1], was the most promising one. However, we identified several issues when modeling collaborative systems with this language that led us to extend the original i* language by creating CSRML (Collaborative Systems Requirements Modeling Language) [4] and evaluate it empirically.

Autores: Miguel A. Teruel / Elena Navarro / Víctor López-Jaquero / Francisco Montero / Javier Jaén / Pascual González / 
Palabras Clave:

10 - Modelos de Contexto en el Desarrollo de Interfaces PostWIMP: una Revisión Crítica

A lo largo de los últimos años, el avance de la tecnología y la aparición
de nuevos dispositivos ha dado lugar a nuevos paradigmas de interacción persona-ordenador que cada vez son más comunes entre los usuarios finales. La hegemonía de las interfaces clásicas WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menus, Pointers) ha
quedado en un segundo plano, dando paso a nuevos tipos de interacción basados
en tecnologías, otrora llamadas futuristas, como realidad virtual, dispositivos corporales, reconocimiento de voz y gestos, entre otros. El desarrollo de este nuevo
tipo de interfaces, llamadas Post-WIMP, está fuertemente ligado al análisis del
contexto, que en muchos casos determinará la viabilidad e idoneidad de las mismas. De esta forma, la interfaz final tendrá en cuenta las necesidades del usuario
y las características específicas del entorno y la plataforma en la que se desarrolla,
mejorando así la usabilidad de la aplicación. Por otro lado, el contexto de una
aplicación ha sido interpretado desde distintos puntos de vista, pero existe cierto
consenso a la hora de asociarlo a aspectos relativos al usuario, la plataforma y el
entorno. En este sentido, se han propuesto numerosos meta-modelos que ayudan
a especificar el contexto durante el análisis de una aplicación. Sin embargo, la
mayoría de estos meta-modelos no están enfocados a describir las necesidades
que aparecen en el desarrollo de sistemas con interfaces Post-WIMP, sino que
tienen como objetivo el desarrollo de sistemas sensibles al contexto específicos
o sistemas con interfaces clásicas WIMP. En este artículo, repasaremos el concepto de contexto, su relación con el desarrollo de interfaces Post-WIMP y analizaremos, desde la perspectiva del desarrollo de sistemas con interfaces PostWIMP dirigido por modelos, varios meta-modelos de contexto.

Autores: Arturo C. Rodríguez / Cristina Roda / Elena Navarro / Pascual González / 
Palabras Clave: Contexto - Interfaces Post-WIMP - Meta-Modelos - Modelos - Revisión

12 - Obtención de diagramas de objetivos para sistemas Teleo-Reactivos: una aproximación metodológica

Este artículo presenta un método para obtener un diagrama TRiStar partiendo de la descripción textual de un sistema Teleo-Reactivo. El método se ilustra con un ejemplo clásico en la literatura de sistemas Teleo-Reactivos: el recolector de latas. El uso de este método permitirá facilitar la especificación y la reutilización de sistemas Teleo-Reactivos.

Autores: José M Morales / Pedro Sánchez / Bárbara Álvarez / Antonio Sanchez Garcia / Elena Navarro / 
Palabras Clave: Metodología - Teleo-Reactivo - TRiStar

13 - An ACO-based personalized learning technique in support of people with acquired brain injury

The ever-increasing cases of acquired brain injury (ABI), especially among young people, have prompted a rapid progress in research involving neurological disorders. One important path is the concept of relearning, which attempts to help people regain basic motor and cognitive skills lost due to illness or accident. The goals of relearning are twofold. First, there must exist a way to properly assess the necessities of an affected person, leading to a diagnosis, followed by a recommendation regarding the exercises, tests and tasks to perform, and second, there must be a way to confirm the results obtained from these recommendations in order to fine-tune and personalize the relearning process. This presents a challenge, as there is a deeply-rooted duality between the personalized and the generalized approach. In this work we propose a personalization algorithm based on the ant colony optimization (ACO), which is a bio-inspired meta-heuristic. As we show, the stochastic nature of ants has certain similarities to the human learning process. Applied Soft Computing 47 (2016) 316-331 21/130 (Q1) We combine the adaptive and exploratory capabilities of ACO systems to respond to rapidly changing environments and the ubiquitous human factor. Finally, we test the proposed solution extensively in various scenarios, achieving high quality results.

Autores: Kamil Krynicki / Javier Jaen / Elena Navarro / 
Palabras Clave: ABI - ACO - Acquired brain injury - Recommendation system - Relearning process