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El autor Manuel Resinas ha publicado 31 artículo(s):

1 - VISUAL PPINOT: A Graphical Notation for Process Performance Indicators (Summary)

Summary of the contribution

Process performance indicators (PPIs) allow the quantitative evaluation of business processes (BPs), providing essential information for decision making. However, PPI management is not only restricted to the evaluation phase of the BPM lifecycle, but also includes a number of steps that must be carried out throughout the whole lifecycle. PPIs need to be defined, the corresponding BPs must be instrumented, PPI values have to be computed, then they can be monitored and analysed using techniques such as business activity monitoring or process mining, and finally, a PPI redefinition can be required in case of the evolution of either the associated BPs or the PPIs themselves. It is common practice today that BPs and PPIs are usually modelled separately using graphical notations for the former and natural language for the latter. This approach makes PPI definitions simple to read and write, but it hinders maintenance consistency between BPs and PPIs. It also requires their manual translation into lower–level implementation languages for their operationalisation, which is a time–consuming, error– prone task because of the ambiguities inherent to natural language definitions. In this article we present Visual ppinot, a graphical notation for defining PPIs together with BP models aimed at facilitating and automating PPI management. This is mainly achieved by means of the following features. First, Visual ppinot is based on the ppinot metamodel, which provides a precise and unambiguous definition of PPIs, thus allowing their automated processing in the different ac- tivities of the lifecycle. Second, Visual ppinot provides traceability by design between PPIs and BPs because PPIs must be explicitly connected to BP elements, thus avoiding inconsistencies and promoting their co–evolution. Finally, Visual ppinot enables a definition of PPIs that is independent of the platforms used to support the PPIs in the BP lifecycle, which reduces vendor lock–in and allows definitions of PPIs encompassing several information systems. In addition, it improves current state–of–the–art proposals in terms of expressiveness and of providing an explicit visualisation of the link between PPIs and BPs. The reference implementation, developed as a complete tool suite, has allowed its validation in a multiple-case study, in which five dimensions were studied: expressiveness, precision, automation, understandability, and traceability.

Autores: Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Amador Durán / Beatriz Bernárdez / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / Miguel Toro / 
Palabras Clave:

2 - Automated Validation of Compensable SLAs (Summary)

A Service Level Agreement (SLA) regulates the provisioning of a service by defining a set of guarantees. Each guarantee sets a Service Level Objective (SLO) on some service metrics, and optionally a compensation that is applied when the SLO is unfulfilled (the compensation would be a penalty) or overfulfilled (the compensation would be a reward). For instance, Amazon is penalised with a 10% in service credits if the availability of the Elastic Cloud Computing service drops below 99.95%.
Currently, there are software tools and research proposals that use the information about compensations to automate and optimise certain parts of the service management. However, they assume that compensations are well defined, which is too optimistic in some circumstances and can lead to undesirable situations. For example, an unbounded, automated penalty was discarded in 2005 by the UK Royal Mail company after causing a loss of 280 million pounds in one year and a half.

In the article «Automated Validation of Compensable SLAs», published in IEEE Transactions on Services Computing (Early Access), and available at, we aim at answering the question «How can compensations be automatically validated?». To this end, we build on the compensable SLA model proposed in a previous work to provide a technique that leverages constraint satisfaction problem solvers to automatically validate them. We also present a materialisation of the model in iAgree, a language to specify SLAs and a tooling support that implements our whole approach. Our proposal has been evaluated by modelling and analysing the compensations of 24 SLAs of real-world scenarios including 319 guarantee terms. As a result, our technique has proven to be useful for detecting mistakes that are typically derived not only from the manual specification of SLAs in natural language, but also from the complex nature of compensation definitions. Thus, we found that nine guarantees with compensations that were not properly defined in the original SLAs specified in natural language. Specifically, five were wrongly specified by Verizon, and four were wrongly specified by the outsourcing service hiring of the regional governments of: Northwest Territories of Canada, and Andalusia in Spain. Therefore, our proposal can pave the way for using compensable SLAs in a safer and more reliable way.

Autores: Carlos Müller / Antonio Manuel Gutierrez / Pablo Fernandez / Octavio Martín-Díaz / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Analysis - Compensation - CSP - Penalty - Reward - SLA - validation - WS-Agreement

3 - Modeling Variability in the Performance Perspective of Business Processes (Summary)

The definition and modeling of business processes may vary from one context to another, for example, to adapt to new business requirements, to regulations in different regions or to reflect new resource allocations. These differences often lead to the definition of several variants of the same process and can be reflected in different process perspectives such as control-flow, data, resources or perfor- mance. The management of process variants can be a laborious, time-consuming and error-prone task since they require a high coordination in the management of each variant and in most cases this management is done manually. Many pro- posals have been developed to deal with the variability of business processes. However, none of them covers in detail the variability in the performance per- spective, which is concerned with the definition of performance requirements usually specified as a set of Process Performance Indicators (PPIs). This vari- ability can be reflected in the form of repetitive and redundant PPI definitions, and can lead to errors and inconsistencies in PPI definitions. To address this problem, we propose a detailed PPI variability classification and a formalization on how PPIs can be modeled together with the variability of other process per- spectives. To this end, we considered variability management approaches, called by restriction and by extension, and we illustrated our proposal by integrating it with two existing process variability modeling languages. An evaluation con- ducted in two scenarios shows the feasibility of our approach and how it can be successfully used to model the variability that is present in those scenarios.

Autores: Bedilia Estrada-Torres / Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Business process - performance indicators - PPIs - Process performance - Variability management

4 - Productivity Challenges in Digital Transformation and its Implications for Workstream Collaboration Tools

La transformación digital ha traído consigo un ritmo de cambio sin precedentes y una enorme cantidad de información disponible para las empresas. Al mismo tiempo, también ha creado una serie de dificultades para los trabajadores del conocimiento que tienen que lidiar con entornos cada vez más volátiles, inciertos, complejos y ambiguos (VUCA). En este escenario, est+AOE proliferando el uso de herramientas colaborativas – en inglés WorkStream Collaboration tools (WSC)- como Microsoft Teams o Slack, para gestionar esta nueva forma de trabajo y mejorar la productividad de los trabajadores del conocimiento. Sin embargo, los objetivos de estas herramientas WSC y la forma de utilizarlas no están bien establecidos por dos razones (i) estos nuevos entornos de trabajo plantean un conjunto de retos para trabajar de forma productiva que no han sido claramente caracterizados, y (ii) no existe experiencia previa ni cuerpo de investigación sólido que los estudie en conjunto para guiar el diseño de soluciones basadas en herramientas WSC. En este trabajo, seguimos un enfoque inductivo basado en el análisis de datos cualitativos y cuantitativos de 365 empleados de 3 empresas (inmersas en entornos VUCA e iniciativas de digitalización con herramientas WSC) para caracterizar los retos de productividad en estos escenarios. El resultado es un conjunto de 14 retos que aparecen con diferente intensidad en cada empresa y el análisis de su implicación sobre el uso de estas herramientas WSC.

Autores: Adela del-Río-Ortega / Joaquín Peña / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: herramientas colaborativas - Productividad - trabajador del conocimiento - transformación digital - workstream collaboration

5 - Methodology to Extend RAL

Resource Assignment Language (RAL) is a language for the selection of organisational resources that can be used, for example, for the assignment of human resources to business process activities. Its formal semantics have allowed the automation of analysis operations in several phases of the business process lifecycle. RAL was designed considering a specific organisational metamodel and pursuing specific purposes. However, it can be extended to deal with similar problems in different domains and under different circumstances. In this paper, a methodology to extend RAL is introduced, and an extension to support another organisational metamodel is described as a proof-of-concept.

Autores: Cristina Cabanillas / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / Jan Mendling / 
Palabras Clave: Business Process Management - description logics - RAL - resource assignment - W3C Organisation Ontology

6 - Run-time prediction of business process indicators using evolutionary decision rules (Summary)

Summary of the contribution

Predictive monitoring of business processes is a challenging topic of process min- ing which is concerned with the prediction of process indicators of running pro- cess instances. The main value of predictive monitoring is to provide information in order to take proactive and corrective actions to improve process performance and mitigate risks in real time. In this paper, we present an approach for pre- dictive monitoring based on the use of evolutionary algorithms. Our method provides a novel event window-based encoding and generates a set of decision rules for the run-time prediction of process indicators according to event log properties. These rules can be interpreted by users to extract further insight of the business processes while keeping a high level of accuracy. Furthermore, a full software stack consisting of a tool to support the training phase and a framework that enables the integration of run-time predictions with business process man- agement systems, has been developed. Obtained results show the validity of our proposal for two large real-life datasets: BPI Challenge 2013 and IT Department of Andalusian Health Service (SAS).

Autores: Alfonso E. Márquez-Chamorro / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Business process indicator - Business Process Management - Evolutionary algorithm - Predictive mon- itoring - Process Mining

7 - Context-Aware Process Performance Indicator Prediction

It is well-known that context impacts running instances of a process. Thus, defining and using contextual information may help to improve the predictive monitoring of business processes, which is one of the main challenges in process mining. However, identifying this contextual information is not an easy task because it might change depending on the target of the prediction. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology named CAP3 (Context-aware Process Performance indicator Prediction) which involves two phases. The first phaseguides process analysts on identifying the context for the predictive monitoring of process performance indicators (PPIs), which are quantifiable metrics focused on measuring the progress of strategic objectives aimed to improve the process. The second phase involves a context-aware predictive monitoring technique that incorporates the relevant context information as input for the prediction. Our methodology leverages context-oriented domain knowledge and experts’ feedback to discover the contextual information useful to improve the quality of PPI prediction with a decrease of error rates in most cases, by adding this information as features to the datasets used as input of the predictive monitoring process. We experimentally evaluated our approach using two-real-life organizations. Process experts from both organizations applied CAP3 methodology and identified the contextual information to be used for prediction. The model learned using this information achieved lower error rates in most cases than the model learned without contextual information confirming the benefits of CAP3.This paper was published in IEEE Access, 2020, Vol. 8, pp. 222050 – 222063, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3044670

Autores: Alfonso E. Márquez-Chamorro / Kate Revoredo / Manuel Resinas / Adela Del-Río-Ortega / Flavia Santoro / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Business Process Management - context-awareness - predictive monitoring - process indicator prediction - Process Mining

9 - Towards the user-centric analysis of the availability in IaaS

Availability is a key property in computational services and, therefore, is guaranteed by Service Level Agreements (SLAs) from the majority infrastructure services, such as virtualization (Amazon EC2, Windows Azure, Google Cloud, Joyent, Rackspace, …) and storage (Amazon S3, Google Cloud Storage, …). These SLAs describe availability in natural language and there are important differences in the scope and penalties that each service provides. Furthermore, descriptions use specific domain terms so they are difficult to understand by service customers. These circumstances make that availability analysis is a tedious, error-prone and time-consuming task. In this paper, we describe in detail this problem and provide a first approach to deal with these SLAs supported on current SLA analysis techniques.

Autores: Antonio Manuel Gutíerrez-Fernández / Pablo Fernández / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Availability - Cloud - IaaS - Service Level Agreements

10 - Narrowing the Business-IT Gap in Process Performance Measurement (Summary)

Process Performance indicators (PPIs) play an important role in monitoring the performance of operational procedures. Both defining and measuring suitable PPIs are key tasks for aligning strategic business objectives with the operational implementation of a process. A major challenge in this regard is that perspectives on the same real-world phenomenon differ among the stakeholders that are involved in these tasks. Since the formulation of PPIs is typically a managerial concern, there is a risk that these do not match with the exact operational and technical characteristics of business processes. To bridge this gap, the concepts described in PPIs must first be linked to their corresponding process elements. Establishing these links is paramount for the monitoring of process performance.
Without them, the values of PPIs cannot be computed automatically. However, the necessary links must currently be established manually. A task which is tedious and error-prone, due to the aforementioned incoherence between the different perspectives. The goal of our work is to overcome the efforts involved in the manual creation of links by automating this step. To achieve this, we developed an approach that automatically aligns textual PPI descriptions to the relevant parts of a process model. The approach takes a textual PPI description and a process model to which the PPI relates as input. Given this input, the approach generates an alignment in three steps. (1) Type classification: We make use of a decision tree classifier to identify the type of a given PPI, which is important because it affects the number and kinds of process model elements that should be aligned to a PPI. (2) PPI parsing: We parse the textual PPI description to extract those phrases that relate to specific parts of a process, making use of natural language processing techniques. (3) Alignment to process model: Finally, given the identified measure type and the extracted phrases, we compute an alignment between the phrases and the process model. A quantitative evaluation with a set of 173 PPIs obtained from industry and reference frameworks, demonstrates that our automated approach produces satisfying results.

Autores: Han van der Aa / Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Henrik Leopold / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / Jan Mendling / Hajo Reijers / 
Palabras Clave:

11 - Priority-Based Human Resource Allocation in Business Processes

Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) are increasingly used to support service composition, typically working with executable BP models that involve resources, which include both automatic services and services provided by human resources. The appropriate selection of human resources is critical, as factors such as workload or skills have an impact on work performance. While priorities for automatic services are intensively researched, human resource prioritization has been hardly discussed. In classical workflow management, only resource assignment at BP design time to select potential performers for activities, and resource allocation at run time to choose actual performers, are considered. There is no explicit consideration of prioritizing potential performers to facilitate the selection of actual performers. It is also disregarded in professional solutions.
In this paper, we address this research gap and provide two contributions: (i) we conceptually define prioritized allocation based on preferences; and (ii) we propose a concrete way in which preferences over resources can be defined so that a resource priority ranking can be automatically generated. Our solution builds on the adaptation of a user preference model developed for the discovery and ranking of semantic web services called SOUP [1] to the domain at hand. As a proof of concept, we have extended the resource management tool CRISTAL ( with the SOUP component [2], using RAL [3] for resource selection. 1. J. M. García, D. Ruiz, and A. R. Cortés, «A Model of User Preferences for Semantic
Services Discovery and Ranking,» in ESWC (2), pp. 1­14, Springer, 2010. 2. J. M. García, M. Junghans, D. Ruiz, S. Agarwal, and A. R. Cortés, «Integrating
semantic Web services ranking mechanisms using a common preference model,» Knowl.-Based Syst., vol. 49, pp. 22­36, 2013. 3. C. Cabanillas, M. Resinas, and A. Ruiz-Cortés, «Defining and Analysing Resource Assignments in Business Processes with RAL,» in ICSOC, vol. 7084, pp. 477­486, Springer, 2011.
This work was published in ICSOC 2013, vol. 8274, 374-388. It was partially supported by the EU-FP7, the EU Commission, the Spanish and the Andalusian R&D&I programmes (grants 318275, 284860, TIN2009-07366, TIN2012-32273, TIC-5906).

Autores: Cristina Cabanillas / José María García / Manuel Resinas / David Ruiz / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / Jan Mendling / 
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12 - Measuring Performance in Knowledge-intensive Processes

Knowledge-intensive Processes (KIPs) can be defined as a type of process that comprises sequences of activities based on intensive acquisition, sharing, storage, and (re)use of knowledge, whereby the amount of value added to the organization depends on the knowledge of the actors involved. Among other characteristics, KIPs are usually non-repeatable, collaboration-oriented, unpredictable, and, in many cases, driven by implicit knowledge, derived from the capabilities and previous experiences of participants. Despite the growing body of research focused on understanding KIPs and on proposing systems to support these KIPs, the research question on how to define performance measures in this context remains open.
In this article, we address this issue with a proposal to enable the performance management of KIPs. Our approach comprises an ontology that allows us to define process performance indicators (PPIs) in the context of KIPs, and a methodology that builds on the ontology and the concepts of lead and lag indicators to provide process participants with actionable guidelines that help them conduct the KIP in a way that fulfills a set of performance goals. Both the ontology and the methodology were applied to a case study of a real organization in Brazil to manage the performance of an Incident management process within an information and communication technology outsourcing company. The insights provided by our approach were considered highly valuable by the company.

Autores: Bedilia Estrada-Torres / Pedro Henrique Piccoli Richetti / Adela Del-Río-Ortega / Fernanda Araujo Baião / Manuel Resinas / Flávia Maria Santoro / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Knowledge-intensive processes - Performance measure - Process performance indicators

13 - Towards Defining Data-Based Thresholds for Process-Related KPIs

The definition of process-related key performance indicators (KPIs) is a key part of performance measurement and one of the most challenging because of the lack of one best way to define businessapplicable KPIs that are both aligned with the strategic goals that the organisation wants to achieve and, at the same time, achievable in its context. It requires the identification of relevant threshold values able to distinguish different levels of process execution quality. However, obtaining these values remains an organization-specific task based on human abilities and no consensual technique exists. To overcome this problem, this paper introduces a methodology for threshold determination that considers not only the expert opinion but also data from real process executions.

Autores: Adela del-Río-Ortega / Félix García / Manuel Resinas / Francisco Ruiz / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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14 - On the feasibility of measuring performance using PPINOT in CMMN

Monitoring and measuring the performance of business processes are valuable tasks that facilitate the identification of possible improvement areas within the organisation according to the fulfillment of its strategic and business goals. A large number of techniques and tools have been developed with the aim of measuring process performance, but most of those processes are structured processes, usually defined using BPMN. The object of this paper is to identify and to analyse the feasibility of using an existing mechanism for the definition and modelling of process performance indicators (PPINOT) in a different context to structured BPMN processes; such as Cases, usually modelled using CMMN. This analysis is based on the similarities between CMMN and BPMN, and on characteristics and attributes used by PPINOT to get values from the process.

Autores: Bedilia Estrada-Torres / Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: business processes - CMMN - performance indicators

15 - Modeling Service Level Agreements with Linked USDL Agreement (Resumen)

A pesar de la importancia de los servicios en la economía, las tareas como la búsqueda, análisis de alternativas, y contratación de servicios en virtud de acuerdos de nivel de servicio (ANS), siguen realizándose manualmente. En la denominada Web de los servicios existen alternativas para facilitar la automatización de estas tareas basadas en diversos modelos conceptuales: genéricos como Linked USDL, o centrados en algún aspecto concreto, como
WS-Agreement con los ANS. Sin embargo, estos últimos contemplan principalmente sólo aspectos técnicos, sin proporcionar una semántica explícita a los términos del ANS ni cumplir los principios de la Web, dificultando su adopción y análisis automático.

En este artículo presentamos Linked USDL Agreement, una extensión de la familia de ontologías Linked USDL que proporciona facilidades para especificar, gestionar y compartir descripciones de ANS en la Web. Este modelo semántico evita los problemas de interoperabilidad y heterogeneidad de las especificaciones de ANS actuales. Además, dado que nuestro modelo sigue los principios de la Web de los datos, las descripciones de ANS generadas son fácilmente publicables, compartibles y analizables, sirviendo como soporte del ciclo de vida de los servicios.

Nuestra propuesta ha sido validada tanto sobre servicios Web tradicionales (e.g. computación en la nube), como sobre servicios no-computacionales (e.g. outsourcing de procesos de negocio). La comparación realizada con otras alternativas existentes, así como la implementación de una herramienta que facilita la creación, publicación, y análisis automático de documentos en Linked USDL Agreement, nos permite afirmar que nuestra propuesta es capaz de soportar
completamente la gestión del ciclo de vida de los ANS.

Autores: José María García / Pablo Fernandez / Carlos Pedrinaci / Manuel Resinas / Jorge S. Cardoso / Antonio Ruiz Cortés / 
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16 - Towards Assessing Open Source Communities’ Health using SOC Concepts

Quality of an open source software ecosystem (OSS ecosystem) is key for different ecosystem actors such as contributors or adopters. In fact, the consideration of several quality aspects(e.g., activeness, visibility, interrelatedness, etc.) as a whole may provide a measure of the healthiness of OSS ecosystems. The more health a OSS ecosystem is, the more and better contributors and adopters it will gather. Some research tools have been developed to gather specific quality information from open source community data sources. However, there exist no frameworks available that can be used to evaluate their quality as a whole in order to obtain the health of an OSS ecosystem. To assess the health of these ecosystems, we propose to adopt robust principles and methods from the Service Oriented Computing field.

Autores: Oscar Franco-Bedoya / Marc Oriol / Carlos Müller / Jordi Marco / Pablo Fernández / Manuel Resinas / Xavier Franch / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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18 - Devising an SLA-Aware Methodology to Improve Process Performance

Aiming to be as competitive as possible, organisations are always pursuing to improve their business processes applying corrective actions when needed. However, the actual analysis and decision making for those actions is typically a challenging task relying on extensive human-in-the-loop expertise. Specifically, this improvement process usually involves: (i) to analyse evidences to understand the current behavior; (ii) to decide the actual objectives (usually defined in Service Level Agreements -SLAs- based on intuition) and (iii) to establish the improvement plan. In this ongoing work, we aim to propose a data-driven and intuition-free methodology to define an SLA as a governance element that specifies the service level objectives in an explicit way. Such a methodology considers process performance indicators that are analysed by means of inference, optimization, and simulation techniques. In order to motivate and exemplify our work we address a Healthcare scenario.

Autores: Carlos Müller / Minsu Cho / Pablo Fernandez / Minseok Song / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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19 - RAL Solver: a Tool to Facilitate Resource Management in Business Process Models

Business process (BP) modelling notations tend to stray their attention from resource management, unlike other aspects such as control flow or even data flow. On the one hand, the languages they offer to assign resources to BP activities are usually either little expressive, or hard to use for non-technical users. On the other hand, they barely care about the subsequent analysis of resource assignments, which would enable the detection of problems and/or inefficiency in the use of the resources available in a company. We present RAL Solver, a tool that addresses the two aforementioned issues, and thus: (i) allows the specification of assignments of resources to BP activities in a reasonably simple way; and (ii) provides capabilities to automatically analyse resource assignments at design time, which allows extracting information from BP models, and detecting inconsistencies and assignment conflicts.

Autores: Cristina Cabanillas / Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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20 - A Hybrid Reliability Metric for SLA Predictive Monitoring

Modern SLA management includes SLA prediction based on data collected during service operations. Besides overall accuracy of a prediction model, decision makers should be able to measure the reliability of individual predictions before taking important decisions, such as whether to renegotiate an SLA. Measures of reliability of individual predictions provided by machine learning techniques tend to depend strictly on the technique chosen and to neglect the features of the system generating the data used to learn a model, i.e., the service provisioning landscape in this case. In this paper, we define a hybrid measure of reliability of an individual SLA prediction for classification models, which accounts for both the reliability of the chosen prediction technique, if available, and features capturing the variability of the service provisioning scenario. The metric is evaluated empirically using SLAs and event logs of a real world case.

This paper was presented in ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC) in April 2019 (GGS Class 2).

Autores: Marco Comuzzi / Alfonso Marquez Chamorro / Manuel Resinas / 
Palabras Clave: Business process - predictive monitoring - Reliability - SLA monitoring

21 - Summary of «Defining and Analysing Resource Assignments in Business Processes with RAL»

Business processes (BPs) are often analysed in terms of control flow, temporal constraints, data and resources. From all of these aspects, resources have received much less attention than other aspects, specially control flow. Even the standard BP modelling notation (BPMN) does not provide concrete definitions for the resource-related concepts [2]. However, the participation of people in BPs is of utmost importance, both to supervise the execution of automatic activities and to carry out software-aided and/or manual tasks. Therefore, they should be considered when designing and modelling the BPs used in an organization.
In this paper we face human-resource management (resource management for short) in BP models. Firstly, we deal with the assignment of resources to the activities of a BP model, aiming at easing and improving the way resources can be associated with BP activities. Some approaches addressing a similar purpose have been introduced in the last years [3­5], but they are in general either too complex to be used by technically unskilled people, or not expressive enough to provide powerful resource management in workflows (WFs) and BPs.

Autores: Cristina Cabanillas / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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22 - Monitorización predictiva de procesos de negocio basada en modelos de predicción actualizables

La monitorización predictiva de instancias de procesos de negocio en ejecución propociona acciones proactivas y correctivas para mejorar el rendimiento de los procesos y mitigar los posibles riesgos en tiempo real. Dicha monitorización permite la predicción de métricas de evaluación o indicadores del rendimiento de un proceso en ejecución. En este contexto, este trabajo define una arquitectura para el proceso de predicción de indicadores que, asimismo, contempla la posibilidad de la actualización del modelo predictivo a lo largo del tiempo.

Autores: Alfonso E. Márquez-Chamorro / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: minería de procesos - monitorización predictiva - predicción de indicadores. - Procesos de Negocio

23 - On the Relationships Between Decision Management and Performance Measurement

Decisions are a key aspect of every business and its processes and their management is of utmost importance for the achievement of strategic and operational goals in any organisational context. Therefore, decisions should be considered as first-class citizens that need to be modelled, measured, analysed, monitored to track their performance, and redesigned if necessary. Existing literature studies the definition of decisions themselves in terms of accuracy, certainty, consistency, covering and correctness. However, to the best of our knowledge, no prior work exists that analyses the relationship between decisions and process performance.
In this paper, we seek to improve the understanding of the relationship between decision management and process performance measurement by means of the analysis of the relationship between these two concepts in three ways. First, by analysing the impact of decisions related to business processes on process performance indicators (PPIs), and using guidelines in the form of a set of steps that can be used to identify decisions that affect the process performance. Second, by defining decision performance indicators (DPIs) to measure performance of decisions related to business processes. And third, by using process performance information in the definition of decisions. Some advantages of explicitly defining these relationships have been encountered, such as the provision of important insights regarding possible dysfunctional decisions from a performance point of view or the identification of possible actions to be taken to improve the performance. We also outline how these relationships can be modelled and supported by extending and integrating PPINOT, a metamodel for the definition and modelling of PPIs, with DMN, a standard that provides constructs to model and decouple decisions from process models.

Autores: Bedilia Estrada-Torres / Adela Del Río Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Decision management - DMN - performance indicators - Performance measurement - PPINOT

24 - Reduciendo la complejidad gráfica de indicadores de procesos de negocio usando abstracción

La representación de indicadores de rendimiento sobre los procesos de negocio facilita la comprensión y definición en el cálculo y obtención de datos. Al incluir varios indicadores sobre un proceso puede ser necesario incorporar una gran cantidad de elementos de medición, generando un exceso de información y dificultando el análisis visual de los datos. En este artículo se presenta una ampliación de la notación gráfica Visual PPINOT, que permite modelar gráficamente indicadores de rendimiento sobre los procesos de negocio. A la notación se incorporan elementos de abstracción para facilitar la representación de patrones recurrentes en indicadores y para mejorar la legibilidad del diagrama del proceso. La implementación se valida utilizando el Modelo de Referencia SCOR. Se propone una clasificación de sus métricas y éstas se utilizan como referencia para estudiar las diferencias del modelado con la notación original en comparación con la notación ampliada.

Autores: Bedilia Estrada-Torres / Adela del-Río-Ortega / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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25 - Un Recorrido por los Principales Proveedores de Servicios de Machine Learning y Predicción en la Nube

Los medios tecnológicos para el consumo, producción e intercambio de información no hacen más que aumentar cada día que pasa. Nos encontramos envueltos en el fenómeno Big Data, donde ser capaces de analizar esta informa- ción con el objetivo de poder inferir situaciones del futuro basándonos en datos del pasado y del presente, nos puede reportar una ventaja competitiva que nos distinga claramente de otras opciones. Dentro de las múltiples disciplinas exis- tentes para el análisis de grandes cantidades información encontramos el Ma- chine Learning y, a su vez, dentro de este podemos destacar la capacidad predic- tiva que nos proporcionan muchas de las opciones existentes actualmente en el mercado. En este trabajo realizamos un análisis de estas principales opciones de APIs predictivas en la nube, las comparamos entre sí, y finalmente llevamos a cabo una experimentación con datos reales de la Red de Vigilancia y Control de la Calidad del Aire de la Junta de Andalucía. Los resultados demuestran que estas herramientas son una opción muy interesante a considerar a la hora de tratar de predecir valores de contaminantes que pueden afectar a nuestra salud seriamente, pudiéndose llevar a cabo acciones preventivas sobre la población afectada.

Autores: David Corral-Plaza / Juan Boubeta-Puig / Manuel Resinas / 
Palabras Clave: API - big data - Cloud - Machine Learning - Predicción - Software as a Service

26 - A Template-based Approach for Responsibility Management in Executable Business Processes (Summary)

Summary of the Contribution

Process-oriented organisations need to manage the different types of responsi- bilities their employees may have w.r.t. the activities involved in their business processes. Despite several approaches provide support for responsibility modelling, in current Business Process Management Systems (BPMS) the only responsibility considered at run time is the one related to performing the work required for activity completion. Others like accountability or consultation must be implemented by manually adding activities in the executable process model, which is time-consuming and error-prone. This paper addresses this limitation by enabling current BPMS to execute processes in which people with different responsibilities interact to complete the activities. A metamodel based on Responsibility Assignment Matrices (RAM) is designed to model the responsibility assignment for each activity, and a template- based mechanism that automatically transforms such information into BPMN elements is developed. The approach is independent of the platform and hence, the output models can be interpreted and executed by BPMS that support BPMN. Furthermore, the original structure of the process model remains unchanged, as the templates for modelling responsibilities are defined at subprocess level. This provides transparency and does not affect the readability of the original model. As our approach does not enforce any specific behaviour but new templates can be modelled to specify the interaction that best suits the activity requirements, there is high flexibility and generalisability. Moreover, template libraries can be created and reused in different processes. We provide a reference implementation and build a library of templates for a well-known set of responsibilities.

Autores: Cristina Cabanillas / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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27 - On the Calculation of Process Performance Indicators

Performance calculation is a key factor to match corporate goals between different partners in process execution. However, although, a number of standards protocols and languages have recently emerged to support business process services in the industry, there is no standard related to monitoring of performance indicators over processes in these systems. As a consequence, BPMS use propietary languages to define measures and calculate them over process execution. In this paper, we describe two different approaches to compute performance mea- sures on business process decoupled from specific Business Process Man- agement System (BPMS) with an existing BPMS-independent language (PPINOT) to define indicators over business processes. Finally, some optimization techniques are described to increase calculation performance based on computing aggregated measures incrementally.

Autores: Antonio Manuel Gutiérrez–Fernández / Manuel Resinas / Adela del–Río–Ortega / Antonio Ruiz–Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Business Process Management - Complex Event Processing - Key Performance Indicators

28 - Modelling Citizen Letters for Public Services automation

The publication and, when it is possible, automation of public services on Internet provides advantages for citizens and governance. The former because promotes the transparency and control over governance actions and avoids unneeded presencial inquiries and the latter because information systems help to decrease human resources costs. A number of efforts have been performed by public administrations to provide precise service information online. As this service information is incrementally published, manual interaction to navigate and query these services becomes a difficult task that automated mechanisms could support based on service catalogs. In this paper we introduce an ongoing work proposing the use of ontologies to enable the automated processing -i.e. search and validation- of these service catalogs.

Autores: Antonio Manuel Gutiérrez / Fernanda Massena / Claudia Cappelli / Manuel Resinas / Flavia Santoro / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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30 - Towards the automation of claiming in SLA-driven services

Current software industry is evolving into a service­centric scenario and consequently, the importance to create reliable service consumptions amongst organizations is a key point. In such a context, the concept of Service Level Agreement (SLA) represents the foundation to express the responsibilities (i.e. rights and obligations) of service consumer and provider during the consumption. However, in spite there has been a major effort in both academia and industry to develop languages and frameworks to support SLAs, there still remain important challenges to address such as how to automate the detection of a violation of the SLAs and how to react accordingly in order to claim for a compensation. Specifically, in this paper we focus on the definition of the automated claiming of SLAs problem characterized as the set of processes of gathering, checking and explaining the evidences associated with the service consumption within the context of an SLA. In order to identify the key requirements to automate the claiming of SLAs, we analyse the real case of the Simple Storage Service (S3) provided by Amazon, that is regulated by an SLA. Based on our analysis we propose a set of extensions to current prominent SLA language specification (WS­Agreement) and conceptualize a list of research challenges to automate the management of the claiming process.

Autores: Manuel Léon / Pablo Fernandez / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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31 - PPINOT: A Tool for the Definition and Analysis of Process Performance Indicators

key aspect in any process-oriented organisation is the evaluation of process performance for the achievement of its strategic and operational goals. Process Performance Indicators (PPIs) are a key asset to carry out this evaluation, and, therefore, having an appropriate definition of these PPIs is crucial. After a careful review of the literature related and a study of the current picture in different real organisations, we conclude that there not exists any proposal that allows to define PPIs in a way that is unambiguous and highly expressive, understandable by technical and non-technical users and traceable with the business process (BP). Furthermore, it is also increasingly important to provide these PPI definitions with support to automated analysis allowing to extract implicit information from them and their relationships with the BP. In this work we present PPINOT, a tool that allows the graphical definition of PPIs together with their corresponding business processes, and their subsequent automated analysis.

Autores: Adela del-Río-Ortega / Cristina Cabanillas / Manuel Resinas / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
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