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ArtículoA Catalogue of Analysis Operations for API Pricing PlansFresno-Aranda, Rafael; Fernández Montes, Pablo; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio. Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), 2023-09-12.In recent years, the usage of public APIs offered by third party providers has fostered the development of the API Economy. Companies use APIs as business assets and they bill consumers for their consumption. The pricing of an API usually includes multiple plans with different limitations and features, from which consumers may choose. In this scenario, consumers who wish to use the API may ask some questions about, for example, which plans to get or what they can do with a maximum budget. Answering these questions manually may be tedious and error-prone, so their automation would be useful. Previous research about analysis operations for limitation-aware microservices architectures led us to the need to get a better understanding of operations for an API pricing. In this paper, we propose an initial catalogue of 11 analysis operations for usual pricing specifications. While it is not an exhaustive set, we intend to show the need to have a catalogue of operations to pave the way for further questions and automated tools. ArtículoA Common Reference Model for Cloud Services Customer AgreementsGarcía, José María; Martín-Díaz, Octavio; Müller, Carlos; Fernández Montes, Pablo; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio. Actas de las XVII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2022), 2022-09-05.Services in cloud computing are always used under the legal terms defined in their customer agreements. Providers have to specify their terms considering applicable jurisdictions and regulations, using varying terminologies that make their compliance checking and analysis operations difficult to generalize and automate. In this paper, we present a reference model as a first step towards obtaining a common specification that will facilitate the operationalization of the service terms included in CAs, while enabling the alignment of the different terminologies used by service providers. ArtículoA Comparison of Message Brokers for Telerehabilitation SystemsGómez, Blas; Navarro, Elena. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.Providing telerehabilitation services entails a lot of challenges such as the variety of sensors to be used, the amount of data generated, oering real-time feedback to patients or the need of asynchronous communication. However, a typical Cloud Infrastructure would miss hard deadlines due latency on the network. Edge Computing plays a fundamental role in this scenario as it moves processing closer to the user, wiping out this delay while still needing to face the aforementioned challenges. Among the most well known patterns to be used for addressing such challenges we nd message brokers. Considering the relevance of message brokers as an alternative for the development of telerehabilitation systems, their selection becomes a critical issue. For this reason, in this paper we present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the most well known message brokers considering both aspects. ResumenA Conformance Checking-based Approach for Sudden Drift Detection in Business ProcessesGallego Fontenla, Víctor José; Vidal Aguiar, Juan Carlos; Lama Penín, Manuel. Actas de las XVII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2022), 2022-09-05.Real life business processes change over time, in both planned and unexpected ways. The detection of these changes is crucial for organizations to ensure that the expected and the real behavior are as similar as possible. These changes over time are called concept drifts and its detection is a big challenge in process mining since the inherent complexity of the data makes difficult distinguishing between a change and an anomalous execution. In this paper, we present C2D2 (Conformance Checking-based Drift Detection), a new approach to detect sudden control-flow changes in the process models from event traces. C2D2 combines discovery techniques with conformance checking methods to perform an offline detection. Our approach has been validated with a synthetic benchmarking dataset formed by 68 logs, showing an improvement in the accuracy while maintaining a very low delay in the drift detection. ResumenA context-aware monitoring architecture for supporting system adaptation and reconfigurationCabrera, Oscar; Oriol, Marc; Franch, Xavier; Marco, Jordi. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.Context: Modern services and applications need to react to changes in their context (e.g. location, memory consumption, number of users) to improve the user+IBk-s experience. To obtain this context, a monitoring infrastructure with adequate functionality and quality levels is required. But this monitoring infrastructure needs to react to the context as well, raising the need for context-aware monitoring tools. Objective: Provide a generic solution for context-aware monitoring able to effectively react to contextual changes. Method: We have designed CAMA, a service-oriented Context-Aware Monitoring Architecture that can be easily configured, adapted and evolved according to contextual changes. CAMA implements a decoupled architecture and manages a context domain ontology for modelling the inputs, outputs and capabilities of monitoring tools. Results: CAMA has been demonstrated in three real use cases. We have also conducted different evaluations, including an empirical study. The results of the evaluations show that (1) the overhead introduced by the architecture does not degrade the behavior of the system, except in extreme conditions+ADs (2) the use of ontologies is not an impediment for practitioners, even when they have little knowledge about this concept+ADs and (3) the reasoning capabilities of CAMA enable context-aware adaptations. CAMA is a solution useful for both researchers and practitioners. Researchers can use this architecture as a baseline for providing different extensions or implementing new approaches on top of CAMA that require context-aware monitoring. Practitioners may also use CAMA in their projects in order to manage contextual changes in an effective way. ArtículoA first aproach to the configuration of ITSM tools to support digital service chainsNúñez Arenas, Carlos; Fernández Montes, Pablo; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio; Ojeda Pérez, Juan Sebastián. Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), 2023-09-12.As organizations become increasingly interconnected and their offered services more interdependent, it is crucial to establish effective management of these dependencies within the resulting digital service chains, particularly in the context of Service Level Agreements (SLAs). The IT Service Management (ITSM) theory presents a robust methodological framework, which is supported by the availability of numerous open and closed source tools in the market that help to manage these services. However, coordinating the configuration of a digital service chain to integrate different organizations and their tools can still pose a significant challenge, with the aim of achieving maximum possible automation. This paper presents an initial approach designed to facilitate the automated configuration of the various tools involved in a digital service chain, ensuring a smooth integration while explicitly identifying the points of integration and meeting SLA requirements. ResumenA Flexible Billing Life Cycle for Cloud Services using Augmented Customer AgreementsGarcía, José María; Martín-Díaz, Octavio; Fernández Montes, Pablo; Müller, Carlos; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.El constante ritmo de evolución de la computación en la nube hace necesario que los términos de los servicios relativos a su precio y facturación se puedan ajustar dinámicamente, considerando cambios en aspectos como las infraestructuras de los proveedores, requisitos de los clientes, o las políticas de descuentos, entre otros. En este contexto, los contratos o acuerdos con clientes (en inglés Customer Agreements o CA) se usan para regular la provisión de servicios en la nube, incluyendo en ellos información referida al nivel de servicio acordado en los Acuerdos de Nivel de Servicio (SLA en inglés), los modelos de precios o los términos de facturación. Aunque existen varias propuestas académicas y herramientas industriales que ofrecen soporte a la definición de modelos de precios y facturación para servicios en la nube, hay carencias importantes en el nivel de personalización e integración de herramientas de monitorización automática en este proceso de facturación. En este artículo presentamos una propuesta altamente flexible para definir el ciclo de vida y proceso de facturación, la cual se basa en CAs que incluyen no sólo términos relativos al SLA, sino también a los modelos de precios y facturación, los cuales son altamente personalizables y pueden contener también compensaciones (en forma de descuentos o cargos adicionales). Además, hemos desarrollado una herramienta de monitorización y análisis automático que ha sido validada en un escenario real en la industria. Finalmente, en el artículo analizamos el rendimiento de nuestra herramienta y comparamos nuestra propuesta con más de 50 herramientas industriales, destacando las ventajas obtenidas gracias al acercamiento basado en reglas que hemos empleado. ResumenA Framework for Efficiently Mining the Organisational Perspective of Business ProcessesSchönig, Stefan; Cabanillas, Cristina; Jablonski, Stefan; Mendling, Jan. Actas de las XIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2017), 2017-07-19.Actual process executions may constitute a valuable input for improving process design. Process mining provides methods for automatic process analysis, among others for discovering processes by extracting knowledge from event logs in the form of a process model. Various algorithms are available to discover models capturing the control flow of a process, related to the behavioural perspective of the process.For perspectives like the organisational perspective, which manages the involvement of human resources in processes, only partial solutions for mining had been developed despite the importance of resource information not only for performance but also for compliance analysis. Prior work on mining resource information focused on discovering specific aspects of the organisational perspective such as role models, separation of duty or social networks. However, comprehensive and integrated support for the wellestablished workflow resource patterns, and specifically in this context for the socalled creation patterns, was missing. Furthermore, the close interplay between the organisational and the behavioural perspectives (cross-perspective patterns) was disregarded. The research reported in this paper presented an efficient and effective framework for mining the organisational perspective of business processes that is divided into an event log pre-processing phase, a phase for integrated resource mining including cross-perspective patterns, and a model post-processing phase. We evaluated our approach with an implementation of the three phases, with simulation experiments for measuring performance, and with the application of the approach on a real-life event log for checking its effectiveness. ResumenA Framework for the Automatic Description of Healthcare Processes in Natural Language: Application in an Aortic Stenosis Integrated Care ProcessFontenla-Seco, Yago; Lama Penín, Manuel; González-Salvado, Violeta; Peña-Gil, Carlos; Bugarín-Diz, Alberto. Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), 2023-09-12.We present a summary of the work A framework for the automatic description of healthcare processes in natural language: Application in an aortic stenosis care process originally published in the Journal of Biomedical Informatics. We present a framework for the automatic generation of natural language descriptions of healthcare processes, with a specific application in the field of cardiology. The framework is based on the most widely used architecture for Data-to-Text systems and supported by a model capable of handling and reasoning with process data. It is able to quantify process features over time, extract temporal relations among activities and suggest possible causes, and compare features between groups of patients, among other features. The framework integrates fuzzy quantification techniques to represent quantitative process data and describe it in natural language using imprecise terms. A real-world application in the Aortic Stenosis Integrated Care Process of the University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela has been validated by fifteen cardiology experts, with very positive results. The findings suggest that natural language is the most efficient modality for conveying information to medical professionals, and that natural language descriptions provide relevant and useful information about the process. ArtículoA Hybrid Reliability Metric for SLA Predictive MonitoringComuzzi, Marco; Márquez-Chamorro, Alfonso E.; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel. Actas de las XV Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2019), 2019-09-02.Modern SLA management includes SLA prediction based on data collected during service operations. Besides overall accuracy of a prediction model, decision makers should be able to measure the reliability of individual predictions before taking important decisions, such as whether to renegotiate an SLA. Measures of reliability of individual predictions provided by machine learning techniques tend to depend strictly on the technique chosen and to neglect the features of the system generating the data used to learn a model, i.e., the service provisioning landscape in this case. In this paper, we define a hybrid measure of reliability of an individual SLA prediction for classification models, which accounts for both the reliability of the chosen prediction technique, if available, and features capturing the variability of the service provisioning scenario. The metric is evaluated empirically using SLAs and event logs of a real world case. This paper was presented in ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (SAC) in April 2019 (GGS Class 2). ArtículoA machine learning approach for semi-automatic assessment of IADL dependence in older adults with wearable sensorsGarcía-Moreno, Francisco Manuel; Bermúdez-Edo, María; Rodríguez-García, Estefanía; Pérez Mármol, José Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez Fórtiz, María José. Actas de las XVII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2022), 2022-09-05.Background and Objective: The assessment of dependence in older adults currently requires a manual collection of data taken from questionnaires. This process is time consuming for the clinicians and intrudes the daily life of the elderly. This paper aims to semi-automate the acquisition and analysis of health data to assess and predict the dependence in older adults while executing one instrumental activity of daily living (IADL). Methods: In a mobile-health (m-health) scenario, we analyze whether the acquisition of data through wearables during the performance of IADLs, and with the help of machine learning techniques could replace the traditional questionnaires to evaluate dependence. To that end, we collected data from wearables, while older adults do the shopping activity. A trial supervisor (TS) labelled the different shopping stages (SS) in the collected data. We performed data pre-processing techniques over those SS and analyzed them with three machine learning algo- rithms: k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). Results: Our results confirm that it is possible to replace the traditional questionnaires with wearable data. In particular, the best learning algorithm we tried reported an accuracy of 97\% in the assessment of dependence. We tuned the hyperparameters of this algorithm and used embedded feature selection technique to get the best performance with a subset of only 10 features out of the initial 85. This model considers only features extracted from four sensors of a single wearable: accelerometer, heart rate, electrodermal activity and temperature. Although these features are not observational, our current proposal is semi-automatic, because it needs a TS labelling the SS (with a smartphone application). In the future, this labelling process could be automatic as well. Conclusions: Our method can semi-automatically assess the dependence, without disturbing daily activities of elderly people. This method can save clinicians’ time in the evaluation of dependence in older adults and reduce healthcare costs. ResumenA Mashup-based Framework for Business Process Compliance CheckingCabanillas, Cristina; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio. Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), 2023-09-12.Business process compliance ensures that the business processes of an organisation are designed and executed according to the rules that enforce the compliance controls that govern the company. We faced the challenge of building a Business Process Compliance Management System (BPCMS) for a process-aware organisation that had to provide support for several needs that, despite having been identified in the literature, were only partially satisfied by existing approaches. The variability in the types of rules and their interpretation generally restricts the existing support for compliance checking to specific types of rules (e.g., rules affecting the control flow of the process), a specific phase of the business process management lifecycle (e.g., design time or run time), or certain information systems for data retrieval (e.g., process event logs). Motivated by this, we designed a conceptual framework for design-time and run-time compliance checking that relies on the use of mashups for rule specification and checking. It presents the following advantages: (i) an open-ended set of types rules can be specified by designing and connecting mashup components; (ii) (parts of) the definitions of the rules can be reused as needed; and (iii) the mashup-based compliance checking system can be integrated with information systems of the organisation, enabling the verification of actual facts on actions performed during the execution of a process (e.g., the existence of a specific document in a concrete location). We defined a methodology to use the framework and we conducted design-time and run-time implementations that were validated with real data within a project with the IT department of a multinational company from the energy supply domain. ResumenA microservice composition approach based on the choreography of BPMN fragmentsValderas, Pedro; Torres, Victoria; Pelechano, Vicente. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.This paper faces the challenge of defining a microservice composition approach that provides the benefits of orchestration and choreography composition mechanisms. The main goal is to provide a solution that allows developers to have a centralized model that describes the big picture of a microservice composition and also to have the possibility of executing the composition defined in this model through an event-based choreography. The modeling language used to create such centralized model is the one provided by the BPMN process diagram. In particular, we introduce a proposal that provides the possibility of 1) defining the microservice composition in a BPMN model to have the big picture of the whole composition, which facilitates further analysis and maintenance when requirements change, and 2) executing the BPMN model by following an event-based choreography to provide a high degree of decoupling and independence to implement and maintain microservices. To this end, the paper presents (1) a set of guidelines to create microservice compositions in BPMN models, split them into fragments, and distribute these fragments among microservices to be executed through an event-based choreography, (2) a microservice architecture defined to support the coexistence of the two descriptions of a composition (i.e., the big picture and the split one), and (3) tool support in order to imple-ment the proposed microservice architecture in Java/Spring technology. ResumenA Microservices e-Health System for Ecological Frailty Assessment using WearablesGarcía-Moreno, Francisco Manuel; Bermúdez-Edo, María; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez-García, Estefanía; Pérez Mármol, José Manuel; Rodríguez Fórtiz, María José. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.The population in developed countries is aging and this fact results in high elderly health costs, as well as a decrease in the number of active working members to support these costs. This could lead to a collapse of the current systems. One of the first insights of the decline in elderly people is frailty, which could be decelerated if it is detected at an early stage. Nowadays, health professionals measure frailty manually through questionnaires and tests of strength or gait focused on the physical dimension. Sensors are increasingly used to measure and monitor different e-health indicators while the user is performing Basic Activities of Daily Life (BADL). In this paper, we present a system based on microservices architecture, which collects sensory data while the older adults perform Instrumental ADLs (IADLs) in combination with BADLs. IADLs involve physical dimension, but also cognitive and social dimensions. With the sensory data we built a machine learning model to assess frailty status which outperforms the previous works that only used BADLs. Our model is accurate, ecological, non-intrusive, flexible and can help health professionals to automatically detect frailty. ArtículoA Model-driven Migration Approach among Cloud ProvidersSandobalín, Julio; Insfrán Pelozo, Emilio; Abrahao Gonzales, Silvia. Actas de las XIV Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2018), 2018-09-17.Cloud computing has become the primary model of pay-per-use to ob- tain cloud services in a short time. Companies are using the cloud services to get access to computing resources located in a virtualized environment. However, the traditional method of using a single cloud provider has numerous limitation in terms of privacy, security, performance, and geography reach. Furthermore, companies are focusing their efforts on avoiding dependent on a single vendor for products and services. As a result, companies start to use multiple clouds and look for methods to move or migrate their infrastructure from a cloud provider to another one. In previous work, we have presented ARGON, which is an infra- structure modeling tool for cloud provisioning. In this paper, we propose an ex- tension of ARGON to provide a model-driven migration approach among cloud providers. ResumenA neural blockchain for a tokenizable e-Participation modelBenítez Martínez, Francisco Luis; Hurtado Torres, María Visitación; Romero Frías, Esteban. Actas de las XVI Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2021), 2021-09-22.Currently, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) and, especially, Blockchain technology represent a great opportunity for public institutions to improve citizen participation and foster democratic innovation. These technologies facilitate the simplification of processes and provide secure management of recorded data, guaranteeing the transmission and public transparency of information. Based on the combination of a Blockchain as a Service (BaaS) platform and G-Cloud solutions, our proposal consists of the design of an e-Participation model that uses a tokenizable system of the actions and processes undertaken by citizens in participatory processes providing incentives to promote greater participation in public affairs. In order to develop a sustainable, scalable and resilient e-Participation system, a new blockchain concept, which organizes the blocks as a neural system, is combined with the implementation of a virtual token to reward participants. Furthermore, this virtual token is deployed through a smart contract that the block itself produces, containing information about the transaction and all the documents involved in the process. Finally, our Neural Distributed Ledger (NDL) framework facilitates the interconnection of blockchain networks in a transparent, certified, secure, auditable, scalable and traceable way ArtículoA Query Language for Exploring Directly-Follows Graph CollectionsSalas-Urbano, María; Capitán-Agudo, Carlos; Cabanillas, Cristina; Resinas Arias de Reyna, Manuel. Actas de las XVII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2022), 2022-09-05.Visualization tools are very useful for data exploration and offer a very intuitive way to look at interesting results in data analysis. In previous work, systems have been designed that, starting from a dataset, generate and work on sets of data visualizations and find those that show desired trends automatically, thus avoiding manual exploration of many visualizations by the user. One of the most used mechanisms to obtain interesting visualizations is the use of a query-based language. However, the use of these systems in process mining is not contemplated, which would be very useful to specifically find interesting results among multiple Directly-Follows Graphs (DFGs) extracted from event logs without carrying out the typical manipulation tasks and exploring multiple DFGs. We are interested in extending an existing query-based language, adapting it to process mining. The goal of is to automatically generate DFG collections and search for visualizations that contain patterns of interest according to some queries made by the users. Thus, interesting visualizations can be found by obtaining and comparing properties of sets of DFGs generated by the system. As an advantage, this approach allows users to obtain interesting results without the need to carry out a manual exploration of a large number of visualizations using the existing process mining tools. We have carried out the evaluation of our approach by solving a challenge provided in a BPI Challenge. ResumenA Recommender System for Process DiscoveryRibeiro, Joel; Carmona, Josep; Misir, Mustafa; Sebag, Michele. Actas de las XII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2016), 2016-07-13.Resumen del artículo publicado como: Joel Ribeiro, Josep Carmona, Mustafa Misir, Michle Sebag: A Recommender System for Process Discovery. 12th International Conference on Business Process Management, BPM 2014, Haifa, Israel, September 7-11, 67-83. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8659, Springer 2014, ISBN 978-3-319-10171-2. ArtículoA Service Level Agreement Driven Framework to Customise Cloud Service BillingGarcía, José María; Martín-Díaz, Octavio; Fernández Montes, Pablo; Müller, Carlos; Ruiz Cortés, Antonio. Actas de las XV Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2019), 2019-09-02.Cloud service providers offer to their customers a variety of pricing policies, which range from the simple, yet widely used pay-as-you-go schema to complex discounted models. When executing the billing process, stakeholders have to consider usage metrics and service level objectives in order to obtain the correct billing and conform to the service level agreement in place. The more metrics, discount and compensations rules are added to the pricing schema, the more complex the billing generation results. In this paper we present a monitoring-based solution that enables the dynamically definition of both service level objectives and discount rules, so that providers can customise the billing generation process in terms of the service level agreement they offer. We validate our proposal in a real-world scenario, introducing a micro-service based software solution deployed in a Kubernetes cluster. ArtículoA Service-oriented Meta-design for the Strategic Digital Transformation Process in Natural History MuseumsAlvarado Pérez, Cristabel Evelia; Garcia Franquesa, Eulàlia; Pastor Collado, Joan Antoni. Actas de las XVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Servicios (JCIS 2023), 2023-09-12.The mission and services of natural history museums (NHMs) show, preserve and study life and ecosystems on Earth to understand nature's patterns and support their conservation. The evolution of IS/IT has driven a fundamental transformation of services and processes within different types of organizations such as NHMs, giving rise to the phenomenon known in the literature as digital transformation. Digital Transformation (DT) is a strategic, organization-wide approach that brings and improves together processes, people and technology. DT is a complex process that requires organizational commitment, including the redesign of service/business processes, developing new skills, and sometimes overcoming people resistance and inertia. Museums have been no strangers to DT for the past few decades, but their pace of change has been slower than in other sectors, leaving most museums far from digital maturity. However, in order to open up their biodiversity data and increase the effectiveness of their service processes, NHMs are faced with the need to integrate IS/IT and transform digitally. Therefore, for NHMs strategic planning of DT has become crucial to set both a clear strategic direction for NHMs to fulfill their mission and maintain their relevance in 21st century. Using a design science research approach, the Museu de Ciències Naturals de Barcelona (MCNB) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) are collaborating in an applied research project, approved and funded by the Industrial Doctorate Programme of the Generalitat de Catalunya. The result will be a new methodology for strategic planning of DT in NHMs, as well as a first DT plan for the Collections area of the MCNB. This paper explains the meta-design carried out to build such a methodology.