ResumenThe role of awareness and gamification on technical debt managementCrespo, Yania; López-Nozal, Carlos; Marticorena-Sánchez, Raúl; Gonzalo-Tasis, Margarita; Piattini Velthuis, Mario Gerardo. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Context. Managing technical debt and developing easy-to-maintain software are very important aspects for technological companies. Integrated development environments (IDEs) and static measurement and analysis tools are used for this purpose. Meanwhile, gamification also is gaining popularity in professional settings, particularly in software development. Objective. This paper aims to analyse the improvement in technical debt indicators due to the use of techniques to raise developers' awareness of technical debt and the introduction of gamification into technical debt management. Method. A quasi-experiment that manipulates a training environment with three different treatments was conducted. The first treatment was based on training in the concept of technical debt, bad smells and refactoring, while using multiple plugins in IDEs to obtain reports on quality indicators of both the code and the tests. The second treatment was based on enriching previous training with the use of Sonarqube to continuously raise awareness of technical debt. The third was based on adding a gamification component to technical debt management based on a contest with a top ten ranking. The results of the first treatment are compared with the use of Sonarqube for continuously raising developers' awareness of technical debt; while the possible effect of gamification is compared with the results of the previous treatment. Results. It was observed that continuously raising awareness using a technical debt management tool, such as Sonarqube, significantly improves the technical debt indicators of the code developed by the participants versus using multiple code and test quality checking tools. On the other hand, incorporating some kind of competition between developers by defining a contest and creating a ranking does not bring about any significant differences in the technical debt indicators. Conclusions. Investment in staff training through tools to raise developers’ awareness of technical debt and incorporating it into continuous integration pipelines does bring improvements in technical debt management. ArtículoCriterios metodológicos para desarrollar juegos seriosKharbouch, Manal; Fernández Alemán, José Luis; Vizcaíno, Aurora. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Este artículo presenta un trabajo en curso cuyo objetivo es realizar un análisis comparativo de los dos marcos de diseño de juegos serios (JS) más destacados, Mechanic, Dynamics and Aesthetics (MDA) y Design Play Experience (DPE), y un marco propuesto recientemente en la literatura, iPlus. Se pretende analizar cada metodología teniendo en cuenta el énfasis de cada metodología en la mecánica del juego, los objetivos de aprendizaje, los perfiles de los jugadores y las métricas para medir la eficacia del juego serio. Los resultados del análisis indican que ninguno de ellos ofrece una solución completa para el diseño de JS. Los resultados del análisis se utilizarán para fundamentar el desarrollo de un nuevo marco integral para el diseño de JS que: (1) integre las inteligencias múltiples del usuario final, los niveles de aprendizaje de la taxonomía Bloom y la mecánica y dinámica del juego de forma coordinada, (2) incorpore una taxonomía para los perfiles de jugador del usuario final en el proceso de diseño de JS y adapte la jugabilidad al mismo, e (3) incorpore tendencias y tecnologías emergentes como la automatización y la reutilización. El marco propuesto servirá de guía a los diseñadores de JS para crear juegos atractivos, eficaces y significativos para diversos contextos educativos. ResumenApplying Inter-rater Reliability and Agreement in Collaborative Grounded Theory Studies in Software EngineeringDíaz, Jessica; Pérez, Jorge; Gallardo, Carolina; González-Prieto, Ángel. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Context: The qualitative research on empirical software engineering that uses Grounded Theory is increasing (GT). The trustworthiness, rigor, and transparency of GT qualitative data analysis can benefit, among others, when multiple analysts juxtapose diverse perspectives and collaborate to develop a common code frame based on a consensual and consistent interpretation. Inter-Rater Reliability (IRR) and/or Inter-Rater Agreement (IRA) are commonly used techniques to measure consensus, and thus develop a shared interpretation. However, minimal guidance is available about how and when to measure IRR/IRA during the iterative process of GT, so researchers have been using ad hoc methods for years. Objective: This paper presents a process for systematically measuring IRR/IRA in GT studies, when appropriate, which is grounded in a previous systematic mapping study on collaborative GT in the field of software engineering. Method: Meta-science guided us to analyze the issues and challenges of collaborative GT and formalize a process to measure IRR/IRA in GT. Results: This process guides researchers to incrementally generate a theory while ensuring consensus on the constructs that support it, improving trustworthiness, rigor, and transparency, and promoting the communicability, reflexivity, and replicability of the research. Conclusion: The application of this process to a GT study seems to support its feasibility. In the absence of further confirmation, this would represent the first step in a de facto standard to be applied to those GT studies that may benefit from IRR/IRA techniques. ResumenDevelopment Effort Estimation in Free/Open Source Software from Activity in Version Control SystemsRobles, Gregorio; Capiluppi, Andrea; Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M.; Lundell, Bjorn; Gamalielsson, Jonas. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Effort estimation models are a fundamental tool in software management, and used as a forecast for resources, constraints and costs associated to software development. For Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) projects, effort estimation is especially complex: professional developers work alongside occasional, volunteer developers, so the overall effort (in person-months) becomes non-trivial to determine. The objective of this work it to develop a simple effort estimation model for FOSS projects, based on the historic data of developers’ effort. The model is fed with direct developer feedback to ensure its accuracy. After extracting the personal development profiles of several thousands of developers from 6 large FOSS projects, we asked them to fill in a questionnaire to determine if they should be considered as full-time developers in the project that they work in. Their feedback was used to fine-tune the value of an effort threshold, above which developers can be considered as full-time. With the help of the over 1,000 questionnaires received, we were able to determine, for every project in our sample, the threshold of commits that separates full-time from non-full-time developers. We finally offer guidelines and a tool to apply our model to FOSS projects that use a version control system. ResumenDeveloping Research Questions in Conversation With the Literature: Operationalization & Tool SupportDíaz García, Óscar; Contell, Jeremías P.. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Empirical Software Engineering rests on the understanding of practical problems and their solution counterparts. Frequently, solutions are not absolute but relative to the context where the problem is observed. This tends to imply that the solution and the problem unveil gradually together, and hence, researchers are not always in the position to state the research question (RQ) at the onset. Like software engineers when facing blurred requirements, researchers might not be familiar enough with the problem in the early phases of a research to properly scope their RQs (hereafter referred to as RQ Scoping). Here, the literature may play the role of the stakeholders in Agile methods: keeping the focus on the aspects that are essential (vs. accidental) of the RQ. Informed by Inductive Top-Down Theorizing, this article acknowledges RQ Scoping as iterative and incremental, entailing a conversation between the experimental work and literature reviewing. Yet, for literature reviewing to become "Agile" it is not only required to be driven by the RQ but also to have tool support. Tools might bring transparency and traceability, both factors especially welcome in a scenario characterized by testing (is my RQ relevant?) and adjustment (how can I make my RQ relevant?). Specifically, the advent of the RQ in close relationship with the literature advises for "Agile" literature reviewing to be conducted at the place where the literature is naturally kept: the Reference Management System (e.g., Mendeley). This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings, design principles, proof of concept and evaluation for FRAMEndeley, a Mendeley-integrated utility for RQ Scoping. ArtículoHacia una Capacidad de Negocio para BizDevOpsFuentes-Quijada, Guillermo; Ruiz-González, Francisco; Caro, Angélica. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.BizDevOps es un enfoque para el desarrollo de software que amplía DevOps con un ciclo de negocio e incorpora a interesados de perfil distinto a TI. Este tercer ciclo se centra en alinear las tecnologías de información con los objetivos del negocio para responder mejor a las necesidades empresariales. La mayoría de las organizaciones familiarizadas con DevOps no lo están todavía con BizDevOps. Con esto en mente, para que las organizaciones puedan adoptar BizDevOps puede ser útil un artefacto metodológico que les indique lo mínimo necesario para implementar este enfoque con éxito. Las capacidades de negocio fueron ideadas justo para este tipo de situaciones, ya que describen la capacidad o habilidad con que las organizaciones pueden lograr un objetivo, detallando las personas, procesos, información y recursos mínimos necesarios para este propósito. Este trabajo presenta una metodología para el diseño y desarrollo de una capacidad de negocio y su aplicación práctica mediante la cual se especifica una capacidad de negocio para llevar a cabo proyectos de desarrollo de software con BizDevOps. Durante su desarrollo se han utilizado principios de diseño y una técnica para integrar, normalizar y transformar la información proveniente de diversas fuentes, evitando al máximo de lo posible la subjetividad. ResumenA Delphi Study to Recognize and Assess Systems of Systems VulnerabilitiesOlivero González, Miguel Ángel; Bertolino, Antonia; Domínguez Mayo, Francisco José; Matteucci, Ilaria; Escalona Cuaresma, María José. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.System of Systems (SoS) is an emerging paradigm by which independent systems collaborate by sharing resources and processes to achieve objectives that they could not achieve on their own. In this context, a number of emergent behaviors may arise that can undermine the security of the constituent systems. We apply the Delphi method with the aims to improve our understanding of SoS security and related problems, and to investigate their possible causes and remedies. Experts on SoS expressed their opinions and reached consensus in a series of rounds by following a structured questionnaire. The results show that the experts found more consensus in disagreement than in agreement about some SoS characteristics, and on how SoS vulnerabilities could be identified and prevented. From this study we learn that more work is needed to reach a shared understanding of SoS vulnerabilities, and we leverage expert feedback to outline some future research directions. ResumenA systematic review of capability and maturity innovation assessment models: Opportunities and challengesGimenez Medina, Manuel; González Enríquez, José; Domínguez Mayo, Francisco José. Actas de las XXVII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2023), 2023-09-12.Public funding, being the primary source for innovation, imposes restrictions caused by a lack of trust between the roles of public funders and organisations in the innovation process. Capability and maturity innovation assessment models can improve the process by combining both roles to create an agile and trusting environment. This paper aims to provide a current description of the state-of-the-art on capability and maturity innovation assessment models in the context of Information and Communication Technologies. To this end, a Systematic Mapping Study was carried out considering high-quality published research from four relevant digital libraries since 2000. The 78 primary studies analysed show several gaps and challenges. In particular, a common ontology has not been achieved, and Innovation Management Systems are scarcely considered. Concepts such as open innovation have not been correctly applied to incorporate all Quadruple Helix stakeholders, especially the government and its role as a public funder. This implies that no studies explore a standard agile public–private maturity model based on capabilities since the public funders’ restrictions have not been considered. Furthermore, although some concepts of innovation capabilities have evolved, none of the studies analysed offer a comprehensive coverage of capabilities. As potential future lines of research, this paper proposes 11 challenges based on the 5 shortcomings found in the literature.