Métodos de Investigación en Ingeniería del Software y Sistemas de Información

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Artículos en la categoría Métodos de Investigación en Ingeniería del Software y Sistemas de Información publicados en las Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024).
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  • Resumen
    Pitfalls in Experiments with DNN4SE: An Analysis of the State of the Practice
    Vegas, Sira; Elbaum, Sebastian. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Software engineering (SE) techniques are increasingly relying on deep learning approaches to support many SE tasks, from bug triaging to code generation. To assess the efficacy of such techniques researchers typically perform controlled experiments. Conducting these experiments, however, is particularly challenging given the complexity of the space of variables involved, from specialized and intricate architectures and algorithms to a large number of training hyper-parameters and choices of evolving datasets, all compounded by how rapidly the machine learning technology is advancing, and the inherent sources of randomness in the training process. In this work we conduct a mapping study, examining 194 experiments with techniques that rely on deep neural networks (DNNs) appearing in 55 papers published in premier SE venues to provide a characterization of the state of the practice, pinpointing experiments' common trends and pitfalls. Our study reveals that most of the experiments, including those that have received ACM artifact badges, have fundamental limitations that raise doubts about the reliability of their findings. More specifically, we find: 1) weak analyses to determine that there is a true relationship between independent and dependent variables (87% of the experiments), 2) limited control over the space of DNN relevant variables, which can render a relationship between dependent variables and treatments that may not be causal but rather correlational (100% of the experiments), and 3) lack of specificity in terms of what are the DNN variables and their values utilized in the experiments (86% of the experiments) to define the treatments being applied, which makes it unclear whether the techniques designed are the ones being assessed, or how the sources of extraneous variation are controlled. We provide some practical recommendations to address these limitations.
  • Resumen
    Exploring Gender Bias in Remote Pair Programming among Software Engineering Students: The twincode Original Study and First External Replication
    Durán, Amador; Fernández, Pablo; Bernárdez, Beatriz; Weinman, Nathaniel; Akalın, Aslıhan; Fox, Armando. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Context: Women have historically been underrepresented in Software Engineering, due in part to the stereotyped assumption that women are less technically competent than men. Pair programming is both widely used in industry and has been shown to increase student interest in Software Engineering, particularly among women; but if those same gender biases are also present in pair programming, its potential for attracting women to the field could be thwarted. Objective: We aim to explore the effects of gender bias in pair programming. Specifically, in a remote setting in which students cannot directly observe the gender of their peers, we study whether the perception of the partner, the behavior during programming, or the style of communication of Software Engineering students differ depending on the perceived gender of their remote partner. To our knowledge, this is the first study specifically focusing on the impact of gender stereotypes and bias within pairs in pair programming. Method: We have developed an online pair-programming platform (twincode) that provides a collaborative editing window and a chat pane, both of which are heavily instrumented. Students in the control group had no information about their partner’s gender, whereas students in the treatment group could see a gendered avatar representing the other participant as a man or as a woman. The gender of the avatar was swapped between programming tasks to analyze 45 variables related to the collaborative coding behavior, chat utterances, and questionnaire responses of 46 pairs in the original study at the University of Seville, and 23 pairs in the external replication at the University of California, Berkeley. Results: We did not observe any statistically significant effect of the gender bias treatment, nor any interaction between the perceived partner’s gender and subject’s gender, in any of the 45 response variables measured in the original study. In the external replication, we observed statistically significant effects with moderate to large sizes in four dependent variables within the experimental group, comparing how subjects acted when their partners were represented as a man or a woman. Conclusions: The results in the original study do not show any clear effect of the treatment in remote pair programming among current Software Engineering students. In the external replication, it seems that students delete more source code characters when they have a woman partner, and communicate using more informal utterances, reflections and yes/no questions when they have a man partner, although these results must be considered inconclusive because of the small number of subjects in the replication, and because when multiple test corrections are applied, only the result about informal utterances remains significant. In any case, more mixed methods replications are needed in order to confirm or refute the results in the same and other Software Engineering students populations.
  • Artículo
    Comparación de la precisión de modelos LSTM para la predicción de calidad de servicios cloud: Un cuasi-experimento
    Guerrón, Ximena; Abrahão, Silvia; Insfran, Emilio; Fernandez-Diego, Marta; Díaz, Erick. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Los servicios en la nube se despliegan en entornos complejos y heterogéneos y requieren una evaluación continua de su calidad. Los modelos de calidad se pueden utilizar para respaldar la especificación y la monitorización de la calidad de servicios (QoS). Sin embargo, dado que la calidad está sujeta a cambios con el tiempo, la monitorización continua y la predicción de la QoS es crucial para permitir una intervención proactiva en caso de posibles desviaciones. El uso de técnicas de aprendizaje automático, especialmente las Redes Neuronales Recurrentes (RNN), parecen prometedores, pero no existe evidencia empírica sobre qué modelo es más adecuado para predecir la QoS. En este artículo, utilizamos una RNN conocida como Memoria a Corto y Largo Plazo (LSTM) para pronosticar la QoS utilizando datos históricos de un servicio proporcionado por una empresa de TI. En particular, el experimento involucra la definición y comparación de la precisión de 16 modelos LSTM usando cuatro métricas: Error cuadrático medio (RMSE), Error absoluto medio (MAE), Error porcentual absoluto medio (MAPE) y Error absoluto medio escalado (MASE). Los resultados muestran que la mejor precisión de los modelos es para la disponibilidad (uptime) con un RMSE de 0.118 y MASE de 1.024, netBytesIn con MAE de 0.088 y paquetes Rx con MAPE de 0.013. Estos resultados sugieren que el modelo basado en LSTM para pronosticar QoS es una herramienta confiable para apoyar la toma de decisiones de los stakeholders.
  • Artículo
    Combinando AR con DSR como método de investigación para BPM
    Salgado Quezada, Maricela; de Castro Martínez, Valeria; Martín Peña, María Luz; Marcos Martínez, Esperanza. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    El ámbito de investigación relacionado con la Business Process Management (BPM) ha tomado especial relevancia en las últimas décadas, sin embargo, queda espacio de mejora sobre todo en la forma/método en las que se llevan a cabo las investigaciones relacionadas con procesos de negocios. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar Design Science Action Research (DSAR), una metodología que combina la Action Research (AR) y la Design Service Research (DSR), y examinar su utilidad para la investigación en BPM apoyando el desarrollo de nuevos artefactos (procesos, métodos, modelos, etc..), actuando en el contexto real de las organizaciones (colaborando investigadores y profesionales desde la concepción del artefacto hasta su evaluación). El trabajo presenta el desarrollo de la metodología DSAR y su aplicación a un caso de estudio real, en una empresa de servicios que aborda la transformación de sus procesos, diseño y prestación de servicios. Contribuimos a la literatura sobre AR y DSR, con una metodología que resulta de la combinación de ambos enfoques, para realizar investigación de operaciones de servicios, ofreciendo una guía paso a paso sobre la aplicación y resumiendo algunas lecciones aprendidas de su uso en un caso real.
  • Artículo
    Estudio preliminar sobre el consumo energético y medidas estáticas de software cuántico
    Desdentado, Elena; Calero, Coral; Moraga, Mª Ángeles; García, Felix. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    La computación cuántica está creciendo mucho estos últimos años ya que se prevé que pueda resolver problemas para los que la computación clásica necesita demasiado tiempo o no es capaz de resolver. Sin embargo, esta tecnología conlleva un gran consumo energético por lo que si queremos utilizarla para resolver problemas de alta complejidad, es fundamental conseguir implementar soluciones que sean energéticamente eficientes. Este estudio preliminar examina correlaciones entre el consumo energético y el ratio de éxito de circuitos cuánticos respecto a algunas medidas estáticas de código cuántico. Como resultado, se han identificado correlaciones positivas entre el consumo energético y el número de líneas, operaciones y qubits empleados y la complejidad ciclomática cuántica del algoritmo cuántico. También se observaron correlaciones, pero en este caso negativas, entre el ratio de éxito y el número de líneas, operaciones y qubits empleados y la complejidad ciclomática cuántica. Estos hallazgos subrayan la importancia de gestionar eficientemente la complejidad y el tamaño para disminuir el consumo energético de los circuitos cuánticos.
  • Artículo
    Combinando diferentes métodos de investigación para avanzar en un catálogo de code smells para Angular
    Sillero, Rafael; Crespo, Yania. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Los code smells suponen un problema para los proyectos de desarrollo de software, pudiendo generar deuda técnica. En este trabajo se investiga el tema de code smells específicos en el ámbito concreto de Angular, un popular framework de desarrollo web. A través de una primera búsqueda de documentación, una encuesta a profesionales del sector y un análisis de varios proyectos mediante una herramienta de referencia en detección de code smells, se combinan diferentes métodos de investigación y se ha podido observar que no existe un catálogo de referencia para estos problemas. A la vista de los resultados, se concluye que hay margen para una mayor investigación que permita establecer un marco de referencia o catálogo en materia de code smells para Angular.
  • Resumen
    The innovation challenge in Spain: A Delphi study
    Gimenez Medina, Manuel; González Enríquez, José; Olivero González, Miguel Ángel; Domínguez Mayo, Francisco José. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Public funding for information and communication technology (ICT) innovation in Spain appears to be slow, bureaucratic, highly restrictive, and not agile. Therefore, the innovation process is negatively affected. These restrictions could be attributed to inadequate trust from public funders toward executors and ontological problems regarding the definitions of ICT innovation (i.e., the I+D+i formula), affecting all Quadruple Helix stakeholders. In this study, a Delphi study was proposed to reach a consensus among 81 experts (i.e., innovation managers, public funders, and consultants) to validate this hypothesis. The study included 41 statements and 59 questions organized into the following five objectives: (1) concept of innovation, (2) public funding and its restrictions, (3) theoretical model of innovation, (4) public funders’ trust and executors’ freedom, (5) assessment of capabilities and maturity for innovation. The experts discussed, evaluated, and reached a consensus, after two rounds, on 52 of the 59 questions. The results revealed wide dispersion of the proposed ICT innovation questions. They demonstrated that the innovation management ecosystem in Spain’s ICT context is immature and the I+D+i formula did not represent the innovation process. The study reached a consensus on requirements for an Agile Innovation Funding Framework (AIFF) oriented toward obtaining an improved competitive advantage for ICT products or services based on trust, transparency, inspection, and adaptation principles. The results revealed that a joint framework involving public funders and executors based on organizational capability and maturity positively affects the innovation process. The capabilities of the executors should be standardized and measured, and public funders must move from supervisors to mentors to acquire new capabilities. Furthermore, innovation regulation and the various types of calls for proposals should be analyzed globally to change their fiscal and controlling nature restricting innovation.
  • Artículo
    Diseño de una Evaluación del Aprendizaje de DevOps con un Juego Serio
    Kharbouch, Manal; Vizcaino, Aurora; Fernandez Aleman, Jose Luis. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    La integración de DevOps en los planes de estudios de ingeniería de software e ingeniería informática sería beneficiosa para los futuros ingenieros de software. No obstante, reproducir escenarios de la vida real con nuevas tecnologías en los que los estudiantes pueden experimentar y cometer errores mientras adquieren conceptos y prácticas fundamentales de DevOps es un desafío. Por lo tanto, es esencial explorar métodos alternativos para mitigar estos obstáculos y facilitar la incorporación de la educación en DevOps. Por ello hemos desarrollado un juego serio en 3D que permite introducir a los estudiantes de ingeniería de software y/o profesionales los conceptos básicos y principales prácticas sobre DevOps. En este artículo corto proponemos una evaluación para comprobar la calidad de nuestro juego serio y analizar qué factores influyen su eficacia sobre el aprendizaje.
  • Resumen
    Revisiting the reproducibility of empirical software engineering studies based on data retrieved from development repositories
    Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M.; Robles, Gregorio. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Context: In 2012, our paper ``On the reproducibility of empirical software engineering studies based on data retrieved from development repositories'' was published. It proposed a method for assessing the reproducibility of studies based on mining software repositories (MSR studies). Since then, several approaches have happened with respect to the study of the reproducibility of this kind of studies. Objective: To revisit the proposals of that paper, analyzing to which extent they remain valid, and how they relate to current initiatives and studies on reproducibility and validation of research results in empirical software engineering. Method: We analyze the most relevant studies affecting assumptions or consequences of the approach of the original paper, and other initiatives related to the evaluation of replicability aspects of empirical software engineering studies. We compare the results of that analysis with the results of the original study, finding similarities and differences. We also run a reproducibility assessment study on current MSR papers. Based on the comparison, and the applicability of the method to current papers, we draw conclusions on the validity of the approach of the original paper. Main lessons learned: The method proposed in the original paper is still valid, and compares well with other more recent methods. It matches the results of relevant studies on reproducibility, and a systematic comparison with them shows that our approach is aligned with their proposals. Our method has practical use, and complements well the current major initiatives on the review of reproducibility artifacts. As a side result, we learn that the reproducibility of MSR studies has improved during the last decade. Vision: We propose to use our approach as a fundamental element of a more profound review of the reproducibility of MSR studies, and of the characterization of validation studies in this realm.
  • Resumen
    A systematic mapping study on security for systems of systems
    Olivero González, Miguel Ángel; Bertolino, Antonia; Domínguez Mayo, Francisco José; Escalona, M.J.; Matteucci, Ilaria. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    In the late twentieth century, the term “System of Systems” (SoS) became popular to describe a complex system made up of a combination of independent constituent systems. Since then, several studies have been conducted to support and assess SoS management, functionality, and performance. Due to the evolutionary nature of SoS and the non-composability of the security properties of its constituent systems, it is difficult to assess or evaluate SoS security. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on SoS security, aimed at stimulating and guiding further research efforts. This systematic mapping study (SMS) focuses on SoS security, privacy, and trust. Our SMS identified 1828 studies from 6 digital libraries, 87 of which were selected that presented approaches analyzing, evaluating, or improving security. We classified these studies using nine research questions that focused on the nature of the studies, the studied SoS, or the study validation. After examining the selected studies, we identified six gaps and as many future work directions. More precisely, we observed that few studies examine SoS problems and instead propose specific solutions, making it challenging to develop generalizable approaches. Furthermore, the lack of standardization has hindered the reuse of existing approaches, making it difficult for solutions to be generalized to other SoS. In addition, the lack of descriptions of industrial environments in the literature makes it difficult to design realistic validation environments. As a result, the validation of new SoS research remains a challenge in the field.
  • Resumen
    Stress, motivation, and performance in global software engineering
    Suarez, Julio; Vizcaino, Aurora. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    The objective of this study is to analyze the current perspective as regards kno-wledge related to what causes stress or motivates developers, how these two as-pects are related to each other, and how this in turn affects their performance in the sphere of Global Software Development and how these can be controlled. This paper presents the results obtained after conducting a systematic mapping study of literature in order to analyze how stress, motivation, and performance affect the project members in Global Software Development teams. We carried out a systematic mapping of published studies dealing with stress, motivation, and performance in global software engineering. A total of 118 papers dealing with this subject were found. The literature analyzed provided a relatively signi-ficant quantity of data referring to the impact that the characteristics of distribu-ted software development projects have on the performance and productivity of teams, along with the actions taken to improve that performance. However, when focusing on the analysis of the impact of this type of projects on team members' motivation, and on the actions that can be taken to improve that moti-vation, we discovered that the number of works decreases considerably and that works referring to the impact of this kind of development on developers' stress were virtually non-existent, as were those concerning ways in which to improve that stress. We are, therefore, of the opinion that it is necessary to carry out in-depth research into the aspects of working in distributed teams that may have a negative impact on developers' levels of motivation and stress, along with what could be beneficial in order to improve levels of motivation and decrease levels of stress.