Ingeniería del Software para Gemelos Digitales

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Artículos en la categoría Ingeniería del Software para Gemelos Digitales publicados en las Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024).
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  • Artículo
    ANGELA DT: A Human Digital Twin for Women’s Safe Mobility in Urban Environments
    Cáceres, Paloma; Castro, Elena; Cavero, José María; Cuadra, Dolores; Cuesta, Carlos E.; Sierra-Alonso, Almudena; Vela, Belén. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    The complexity of the problem of women's safety in urban environments requires some kind of technological support. With this purpose, this short paper presents the proposal of a system which includes a specific kind of Human Digital Twin, named ANGELA DT, conceived to serve as a “digital companion” of women for a safe mobility. This DT is located in the user’s smartphone, and it is able to locally capture information about her, accessing every relevant sensor in multiple devices, and defining a profile for her movements and situation. This information is synchronized with a larger data architecture, specifically with a data lake which gathers information from many sources, including data about locations in the city and the urban furniture. These make possible to make predictions about the safety of e.g. a certain route, which can be provided to the female user through public APIs and mobile apps, including the one which hosts the DT. The system will provide specialized mobility metrics, which will be used to characterize the definition of “safety” in this context, and to improve our predictions.
  • Artículo
    Simulación de Sistema de Monitoreo de Salud Inteligente basada en Digital Twin
    Gorelova, Anastasiia; Melia, Santiago; Gadzhimusieva, Diana. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Un informe reciente de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) revela que aproximadamente el 17.5% de la población mundial sufre de infertili-dad, subrayando la necesidad urgente de ampliar el acceso a tratamientos de fertilidad. A pesar de los avances en el tratamiento de la fertilidad, siguen careciendo de seguimiento a distancia debido a la falta de dispositivos fia-bles y de sistemas inteligentes de seguimiento de la salud (SHMS) que mi-dan y transmitan datos de salud en tiempo real. SHMSs podrían revolucio-nar la atención médica al mejorar la calidad y eficiencia de los tratamientos, reducir costos y ampliar el acceso a los tratamientos. En este contexto, pro-ponemos un SHMS alimentado con novedoso biosensor hormonal para el seguimiento de tratamientos de reproducción asistida. La inclusión de un bloque de simulación, que se fundamenta en el paradigma Digital Twin creando una réplica virtual del biosensor, permite modelar el comporta-miento del biosensor y llevar a cabo la evaluación e integración del SHMS en la práctica clínica antes de completar el desarrollo del biosensor.
  • Artículo
    Uso de técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial para la búsqueda de datos generados por sensores
    Berenguer, Alberto; Morejón, Adriana; Tomás, David; Mazón, Jose Norberto. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    El uso de datos generados por sensores es crucial en el desarrollo de gemelos digitales. Sin embargo, reutilizar algunos de estos datos no es sencillo debido a su heterogeneidad y el incumplimiento de los principios FAIR. En este artículo corto, se presenta una arquitectura preliminar basada en técnicas de Inteligencia Artificial para mejorar su reutilización. Nuestra arquitectura consta de dos componentes: uno hace uso de grandes modelos de lenguaje (LLMs) para extraer datos y transformarlos a un formato reutilizable; y el otro indexa estos datos, permitiendo usar un algoritmo de búsqueda basado en word embeddings. Nuestra arquitectura facilita la reutilización de datos procedentes de sensores para diversos fines, como el desarrollo de gemelos digitales.
  • Resumen
    IoT-based expert system for fault detection in Japanese Plum leaf-turgor pressure WSN
    Barriga, Arturo; Barriga Corchero, José Ángel; Moñino, María José; Clemente Martín, Pedro José. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Industry 4.0 entails the digital transformation of economic sectors, with a special focus on overcoming the challenges of climate change and water scarcity. In agriculture, precision irrigation techniques are currently being applied to optimize water use. Precision irrigation is based on crop water stress, which can be assessed using a wireless sensor network (WSN) of leaf turgor-pressure sensors. Unfortunately, these sensors often fail, resulting in data errors that could compromise the accurate application of precision irrigation and harm crop yields, making it imperative to identify sensor faults. In this context, the traditional process of identifying sensor faults is laborious and expensive, requiring expert review of all sensors and their measurements. Thus, to streamline this task, this study proposes an IoT-based expert system that employs a novel learning model, achieving an f1-score of 84.2% and an AUC ROC of 0.94 for sensor fault identification. It should be noted that the learning model is trained exclusively on real data from an experimental plot. The practical application of the IoT-based expert system on the plot is presented and discussed, accompanied by a novel methodology summarizing the main findings of the study.
  • Resumen
    Data fabric and digital twins: An integrated approach for data fusion design and evaluation of pervasive systems
    Macías, Aurora; Muñoz, David; Navarro, Elena; Gonzalez, Pascual. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Recent technological improvements have made it possible for pervasive computing intelligent environments, augmented by sensors and actuators, to offer services that support society's aims for a wide variety of applications. This requires the fusion of data gathered from multiple sensors to convert them into information to obtain valuable knowledge. Poor implementation of data fusion hinders the appropriate actions from being taken and offering the appropriate support to users and environment needs, particularly relevant in the healthcare domain. Data fusion poses challenges that are mainly related to the quality of the data or data sources, the definition of a data fusion process and evaluating the data fusion carried out. There is also a lack of holistic engineering frameworks to address these challenges. These frameworks should be able to support automated methods of extracting knowledge from information, selecting algorithms and techniques, assessing information and evaluating information fusion systems in an automatic and standardized manner. This work proposes a holistic framework to improve data fusion in pervasive systems, addressing the issues identified by means of two processes: the first of which guides the design of the system architecture and focuses on data management. It is based on a previous proposal that integrated aspects of Data Fabric and Digital Twins to solve data management and data contextualization and representation issues, respectively. The extension of the previous proposal presented here was mainly defined by integrating aspects and techniques from different well-known multi-sensor data fusion models. The previous proposal identified high-level data processing activities and was intended to facilitate their traceability to components in the system architecture. However, the previously defined stages are not completely adequate in a data fusion process and the data processing tasks to be performed in each stage are not described in detail, especially in the data fusion stages. The second process of the framework deals with evaluating data fusion systems and is based on international standards to ensure the quality of the data fusion tasks performed by such systems. This process also offers guidelines for designing the architecture of an evaluation subsystem to automatically perform data fusion evaluation in runtime as part of the system. To illustrate the proposal, a system for preventing the spread of COVID-19 in nursing homes is described that was developed using the proposed guidelines It is also illustrated by a description of how the data fusion tasks it supports are evaluated by the proposed evaluation process. The overall evaluation of the data fusion performed by this system was considered satisfactory, which indicates that the proposal facilitates the design and development of data fusion systems and helps to achieve the necessary quality requirements.
  • Artículo
    Monitorización en Tiempo Real de Gemelos Digitales usando Alineamiento de Trazas
    Muñoz, Paula; Troya, Javier; Vallecillo, Antonio. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    En los sistemas de gemelos digitales es crucial comprobar la fidelidad del comportamiento de los gemelos físico y digital para poder validarlos. En trabajos anteriores, propusimos el análisis de trazas para determinar la fidelidad en el comportamiento de los gemelos. En este trabajo, exploramos el uso de ventanas temporales para poder realizar este análisis en tiempo de ejecución.
  • Artículo
    Scalability of composite digital twins on OpenTwins platform
    Robles, Julia; Bueno, Altair; Infante, Sergio; Martín, Cristian; Díaz, Manuel. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    This paper explores the scalability limitations faced by the OpenTwins digital twin platform, especially when trying to define a digital twin with a high complexity or number of entities. A critical evaluation of the current architecture of the system is performed, identifying problems associated with the base framework, Eclipse Ditto, and the InfluxDB time series database. The use of an actor system and mailboxes by Eclipse Ditto, together with the InfluxDB approach to identify series, is pointed out as a determining factor in the limited scalability of these solutions in terms of cardinality. In order to overcome these constraints, an redefined architecture is proposed that integrates solutions designed to operate with low latency and high cardinality. In this approach, a new component is introduced with the ability to deploy Telegraf instances to efficiently manage digital twin connections. Moreover, as part of the improvement, the time series database is changed, opting for Timescale due to its efficient scalability against high cardinality situations.
  • Artículo
    Distributed digital twins on the open-source OpenTwins framework
    Infante, Sergio; Robles, Julia; Martín, Cristian; Rubio, Bartolomé; Díaz, Manuel. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    This article addresses some challenges associated with combining Digital Twins and Distributed systems technologies and introduces a re-definition of the architecture of OpenTwins, an open-source platform designed to develop generic next-gen 3D-IoT-AI-powered digital twins. This approach enables the distribution of digital twins across different infrastructures by seamlessly integrating multiple instances of OpenTwins working together. Distributing Digital Twins across networks and devices offers dynamic and collaborative simulations, artificial intelligence techniques, yet poses synchronization and scalability challenges. The platform re-definition involves the definition of a lightweight, synchronized, and distributed version of the original OpenTwins architecture to tackle these issues. As the field of digital twins is closely linked to the Internet of Things(IoT) environment this architecture has been designed to be compatible in IoT devices, being compatible with ARM architectures, consuming fewer resources than the original platform as it has fewer components, thus reducing the number of messages and the bandwidth consumed.
  • Artículo
    Predicción de la carga de trabajo sobre nodos edge en el Cloud Continuum a través de un Digital Twin
    Cano, Eduardo; Rodríguez, Pablo; Laso Mangas, Sergio; Galán, Jaime; Berrocal, Javier; Murillo Rodríguez, Juan Manuel. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    El Cloud Continuum es un paradigma de computación emergente, el cual implica diferentes tipos de dispositivos, desde dispositivos finales, pasando por dispositivos edge y dispositivos intermedios más potentes (fog), hasta el cloud. En este dinámico entorno, la gestión eficiente de los recursos es crucial, especialmente en los nodos edge, donde las limitaciones de capacidad y la variabilidad de la carga de trabajo presentan desafíos e influyen en gran medida en el desempeño del sistema. Actualmente existen algunas soluciones en este ámbito, pero éstas carecen de la flexibilidad y agilidad para ajustarse en tiempo real a las variaciones de demanda en los nodos edge. En este artículo se propone el uso de un Digital Twin para predecir y administrar de manera efectiva la carga de trabajo en los nodos edge del Cloud Continuum, reaccionar en tiempo real e incluso prever acontecimientos futuros. Al mantener una réplica virtual de los nodos edge, interconectada con su contraparte física, se puede facilitar una simulación precisa y un análisis predictivo, permitiendo así anticiparse y adaptarse a las necesidades de manera proactiva.
  • Resumen
    Towards High-Availability Cyber-Physical Systems using a Microservice Architecture
    Mena, Manel; Criado, Javier; Corral, Antonio; Chbeir, Richard; Manolopulos, Yannis; Iribarne, Luis. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    In the past few years the use of IoT devices has grown exponentially. When it comes to working with them, we find a series of problems that are not easy to solve. On the one hand, the simple fact of communicating with those devices can be problematic since they can use different types of technologies regarding that communication. On the other hand, these types of devices usually aim to perform their function using the lowest possible energy, meaning they have certain constraints in terms of performance. Trying to work with these devices in high-availability environments becomes difficult because of those restraints. This paper introduces Digital Dice, a virtual representation of IoT devices and cyber-physical systems based on microservices that uses the standard established by the W3C, the Web of Things, as the underlying framework to declare its possible interactions. The article puts forward the different strategies that Digital Dice uses to mitigate the problems raised. Furthermore, we contrast the performance of Digital Dice with using the devices directly, demonstrating its advantages in a process that requires High Availability.
  • Artículo
    Practical advice for designing and implementing Digital Twins
    Carrión, Emilio; Pastor, Óscar. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    In the age of digital transformation, digital twins have emerged as essential tools that deliver accurate virtual representations of objects and systems in the physical world. This article provides practical advice for designing and developing digital twins. Through a review of related work, trends in existing development proposals are identified. The resulting practical guide highlights the importance of hierarchical modelling, unique identifiers, multi-model approach, levels of detail, pre-analysis, careful selection of elements, the use of component libraries, and the definition of interfaces. These recommendations provide a solid practical foundation for the creation of digital twins adaptable to various industries. As a next step, developing a comprehensive methodology that will be validated in a real logistics environment in collaboration with Mercadona Tech is proposed, to offer practical and applicable solutions.
  • Artículo
    Desarrollo de un entorno 3D para la simulación de edificios inteligentes con gemelos digitales
    Castells Galindo, Iván; Criado, Javier; Iribarne, Luis. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Los dispositivos IoT y su implementación en numerosos campos de aplicación forman parte de nuestro entorno, y se prevé que este hecho siga en aumento en el futuro. Con el objetivo de optimizar al máximo sus recursos y oportunidades se plantea hacer uso de gemelos digitales en entornos 3D, donde es posible detectar errores o fallos además de identificar posibles mejoras a implementar. Este entorno también posibilita realizar el diseño de nuevas instalaciones inteligentes, ahorrando así costes y recursos. Tanto para las nuevas instalaciones como para los edificios ya existentes, se propone una arquitectura donde se combinan motores de videojuegos con servicios web para desarrollar una simulación que posea un alto grado de detalle. Esta labor es alcanzable gracias a las diversas funcionalidades que ofrecen que, junto a una comunicación con los servicios web correspondientes para obtener y actualizar la información y el estado, nos permite lograr un entorno donde alcanzar una mayor compresión y mejor toma de decisiones.
  • Artículo
    Hacia el uso de gemelos digitales en la planificación de carga de vehículos eléctricos
    Sánchez-Salas, Raquel; Troya, Javier; Cámara, Javier. Actas de las XXVIII Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2024), 2024-06-17.
    Debido a la proliferación de vehículos eléctricos (VE) y a las limitaciones de estaciones de carga, es importante contar con mecanismos para una carga inteligente de los VE. Suponiendo una flota de VE que se deben cargar en la misma estación de carga, es importante considerar las restricciones temporales y de uso, así como sus incertidumbres, para determinar el orden y duración de la carga de cada vehículo. Los gemelos digitales suponen una tecnología que puede contribuir en el análisis y mejora de procesos con restricciones. En este artículo se realiza una primera aproximación al uso de gemelos digitales en este dominio, demostrando que pueden ayudar a acometer este problema.