Ingeniería del Software Dirigida por Modelos

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Artículos en la categoría Ingeniería del Software Dirigida por Modelos publicados en las Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021).
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  • Resumen
    A Model-Driven Engineering Approach for the Service Integration of IoT Systems
    Alulema Flores, Darwin Omar; Criado, Javier; Iribarne, Luis; Fernández-García, Antonio Jesús; Ayala, Rosa. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    With the development of IoT devices and web services, the objects of the real world are more interconnected, which allows applications to extend their characteristics in different fields, including industrial or home environments, among other possible examples such as health, trade, transport, or agriculture. However, this development highlights the challenge of interoperability, because devices are heterogeneous and use different communication protocols and different data formats. For this reason, we propose a model for point-to-point integration in three-layer IoT applications: (a) hardware, which corresponds to the physical objects (controller, sensor and actuator), (b) communication, which is the bridge that allows the exchange of data between a MQTT +AFw-cite+AHs-yassein2017iot+AH0 queue and REST web services, and (c) integration, which establishes a sequence of transactions to coordinate the components of the system. For this purpose, a metamodel, a graphic editor and a code generator have been developed that allow the developer to design IoT systems formed by heterogeneous components without having in-depth knowledge of every hardware and software platform. In order to validate our proposal, a smart home scenario has been developed, with a series of sensors and actuators that combined show a complex behavior.
  • Resumen
    Integrating Complex Event Processing and Machine Learning: an Intelligent Architecture for Detecting IoT Security Attacks
    Roldán-Gómez, José; Boubeta-Puig, Juan; Martínez, José Luis; Ortiz, Guadalupe. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing globally at a fast pace. However, the increase in IoT devices has brought with it the challenge of promptly detecting and combating the cybersecurity threats that target them. To deal with this problem, we propose an intelligent architecture that integrates Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology and the Machine Learning (ML) paradigm in order to detect different types of IoT security attacks in real time. In particular, such an architecture is capable of easily managing event patterns whose conditions depend on values obtained by ML algorithms. Additionally, a model-driven graphical tool for security attack pattern definition and automatic code generation is provided, hiding all the complexity derived from implementation details from domain experts. The proposed architecture has been applied in the case of a healthcare IoT network to validate its ability to detect attacks made by malicious devices. The results obtained demonstrate that this architecture satisfactorily fulfils its objectives.
  • Artículo
    SmaC: soportando el modelado de contratos inteligentes
    Gómez Macías, Cristian; Vara, Juan Manuel; Perez Blanco, Francisco Javier; Marcos Martínez, Esperanza. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    A pesar del interés que despierta la tecnología blockchain y los contratos inteligentes, su complejidad supone un problema que ralentiza su adopción. Con la intención de contribuir a minimizar este problema, en la última edición de estas jornadas presentábamos una propuesta metodológica y tecnológica para el uso de modelos en el ámbito de los contratos inteligentes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los primeros resultados de esa propuesta.
  • Resumen
    Scalable Modeling Technologies in the Wild: An Experience Report on Wind Turbines Control Applications Development
    Gómez, Abel; Mendialdua, Xabier; Barmpis, Konstantinos; Bergmann, Gábor; Cabot, Jordi; De Carlos, Xabier; Debreceni, Csaba; Garmendia, Antonio; Kolovos, Dimitrios S.; de Lara, Juan. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Scalability in modeling has many facets, including the ability to build larger models and domain specific languages (DSLs) efficiently. With the aim of tackling some of the most prominent scalability challenges in Model-Based Engineering (MBE), the MONDO EU project developed the theoretical foundations and open-source implementation of a platform for scalable modeling and model management. The platform includes facilities for building large graphical DSLs, for splitting large models into sets of smaller interrelated fragments, to index large collections of models to speed-up their querying, and to enable the collaborative construction and refinement of complex models, among other features. This paper reports on the tools provided by MONDO that Ikerlan, a medium-sized technology center which in the last decade has embraced the MBE paradigm, adopted in order to improve their processes. This experience produced as a result a set of model editors and related technologies that fostered collaboration and scalability in the development of wind turbine control applications. In order to evaluate the benefits obtained, an on-site evaluation of the tools was performed. This evaluation shows that scalable MBE technologies give new growth opportunities to small and medium-sized organizations. Published in: Software and Systems Modeling, 19 (5), pp. 1229-1261, 2020. Impact Factor: 1.876 Q2 (2019) DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10270-020-00776-8
  • Resumen
    Easing DApp Interaction for Non-Blockchain Users from a Conceptual Modelling Approach
    Teruel, Miguel A.; Trujillo, Juan. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Blockchain decentralized applications (DApp+IBk-s) are applications which run on blockchains nodes. Thus, to interact directly with this sort of applica-tions, users need to have a blockchain address, wallet, and knowledge about how to make transactions to interact with DApp+IBk-s. Therefore, the knowledge required to use a DApp can easily make users to desist when trying to interact with them. To tackle this issue, we propose a software ar-chitecture that will be in the middle of the user and the DApp, thus making users initially unaware of the fact that they are interacting with a DApp. This is achieved by analyzing the relationship between DApps and Apps by using UML modelling. Next, based on the previous analysis, we created a middleware for users to interact with a DApp in the same manner they do with a traditional web app, i.e., by using usernames, passwords and user in-terface elements instead of addresses, private keys or transactions. To put the developed middleware into practice, we developed a DApp that makes use of it. This DApp registers the time control of workers from companies by using blockchain to store the data in a secure and non-modifiable man-ner. Finally, we performed an experiment, thus demonstrating that a DApp that implements the proposed middleware would improve its usability for users with no experience with blockchain.
  • Resumen
    Business Process Execution From the Alignment Between Business Processes and Web Services: A Semantic and Model-Driven Modernization Process
    Sosa Sánchez, Encarna; Clemente Martín, Pedro José; Conejero, José María; Prieto Ramos, Álvaro E.. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Many companies have implemented their business processes in Web applications which must be frequently adapted so as to stay aligned with new business process requirements. Service-oriented architectures (SOAs) constitute an appropriate option to manage the continuous changes in those processes by facilitating their alignment with the changing underlying system services. In this context, firms are trying to migrate their Web applications to new software architectures such as SOAs. However, this migration is usually carried out ad-hoc by means of non-reusable and error-prone manual processes. Similarly, the alignment between the business processes and the underlying services identified is usually done by hand. This work presents a model-driven semiautomatic approach to modernize legacy Web applications to SOAs. The approach is focused on an automatic semantic process aimed at discovering the services that can be used to implement the business processes (defined by the companies), then aligning these processes with the underlying services. A semantic algorithm is provided to aid the migration architect during the alignment process. The case study carried out shows that the alignment process results obtained by the semantic algorithm presented in this paper are similar to those obtained by the experts manually. Finally, SOA orchestration artifacts are generated from the semantic algorithm results.
  • Resumen
    Measuring Quality of Service in a Robotized Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Scenario
    Romero-Garcés, Juan Adrian; Martínez Cruz, Jesús; Inglés-Romero, Juan F.; Vicente-Chicote, Cristina; Marfil, Rebeca; Bandera, Antonio J.. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is an integrated clinical process to evaluate frail elderly people in order to provide them with customized therapy plans. The whole process includes the completion of standardized questionnaires or specific movements, which are performed by the patient and do not necessarily require the presence of a medical expert. With the aim to automate CGA tests in as much as possible, we have designed and developed CLARC: a mobile robot aimed at helping physicians to capture and manage data during the CGA procedures, mainly by autonomously conducting a set of predefined tests. The design of CLARC has required dealing with both functional (robot's skills and tasks) and non-functional aspects (e.g. performance, safety, or user satisfaction, among others). This paper describes a novel model-based approach aimed at helping designers (1) to specify the contextual information available to the robot+ADs the Non-Functional Properties (NFP considered relevant for a given application+ADs and how (and to what extent) changes in the context may affect these properties+ADs and, from these models (2) to generate the runtime infrastructure allowing the robot to monitor its execution context and estimate high-level QoS metrics to know how well it is performing in terms of the selected NFPs.
  • Resumen
    Wodel-Test: A Model-Based Framework for Language-Independent Mutation Testing
    Gómez-Abajo, Pablo; Guerra, Esther; de Lara, Juan; Merayo, Mercedes G.. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Mutation testing (MT) targets the assessment of test cases by measuring their efficiency to detect faults. This technique involves modifying the program under test to emulate programming faults, and assessing whether the existing test cases detect such mutations. MT has been extensively studied since the 70's, and many tools have been proposed for widely used languages like C, Java, Fortran, Ada and SQL+ADs and for notations like Petri-nets. However, building MT tools is costly and error-prone, which may prevent their development for new programming and domain-specific (modelling) languages. In this paper, we propose a framework called Wodel-Test to reduce the effort to create MT tools. For this purpose, it follows a model-driven approach by which MT tools are synthesized from a high-level description. This description makes use of the domain-specific language Wodel to define and execute model mutations. Wodel is language-independent, as it allows the creation of mutation operators for any language defined by a meta-model. Starting from the definition of the mutation operators, Wodel-Test generates a MT environment which parses the program under test into a model, applies the mutation operators, and evaluates the test-suite against the generated mutants, offering a rich collection of MT metrics. We report on an evaluation of the approach based on the creation of MT tools for Java and the Atlas transformation language.
  • Artículo
    Un lenguaje para definir componentes WoT basados en microservicios
    Mena, Manel; Criado, Javier; Iribarne, Luis. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Al trabajar con dispositivos IoT o sistemas ciberfísicos, estos son expuestos por múltiples protocolos diferentes. Su gestión y manejo provocan problemas de usabilidad e integración. Para paliar estos problemas necesitamos encontrar una solución capaz de facilitar la comunicación entre diferentes plataformas y dispositivos. La Web of Things (WoT) propone una serie de interfaces y patrones de interacción entre distintas +ACI-cosas+ACI, as+AO0 como estrategias de implementación. Los componentes software que implementan parte de la especificación establecida por la WoT son lo que se conocen como WoT servients. En el artículo se presenta un lenguaje para la definición de Digital Dices. Un Digital Dice es un WoT servient basado en microservicios inspirado en el concepto de Digital Twin que representa de manera abstracta un dispositivo físico para poder gestionarlo aplicando protocolos y tecnologías web.
  • Artículo
    Facilitando la gestión de modelos para el diseño de servicios
    Perez Blanco, Francisco Javier; Vara, Juan Manuel; Gómez Macías, Cristian; de Castro Martínez, Valeria; Marcos Martínez, Esperanza. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Este trabajo describe los últimos avances en el desarrollo de INNoVaServ, un entorno de modelado para el diseño de servicios que soporta las notaciones Business Model Canvas, e3value, Service Blueprint, PCN y BPMN. La mejora aqu+AO0 presentada consiste en el desarrollo de un panel de control o dashboard que, haciendo uso de técnicas MDE, facilita la gestión de los modelos utilizados en el contexto de un determinado proyecto de diseño de servicios.
  • Resumen
    Engineering human-in-the-loop cyber-physical systems
    Gil, Miriam; Albert, Manoli; Fons, Joan; Pelechano, Vicente. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Context: Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are gradually and widely introducing autonomous capabilities into everything. However, human participation is required to accomplish tasks that are better performed with humans (often called human-in-the-loop). In this way, human-in-the-loop solutions have the potential to handle complex tasks in unstructured environments, by combining the cognitive skills of humans with autonomous systems behaviors. Objective: The objective of this paper is to provide appropriate techniques and methods to help designers analyze and design human-in-the-loop solutions. These solutions require interactions that engage the human, provide natural and understandable collaboration, and avoid disturbing the human in order to improve human experience. Method: We have analyzed several works that identified different requirements and critical factors that are relevant to the design of human-in-the-loop solutions. Based on these works, we have defined a set of design principles that are used to build our proposal. Fast-prototyping techniques have been applied to simulate the designed human-in-the-loop solutions and validate them. Results: We have identified the technological challenges of designing human-in-the-loop CPSs and have provided a method that helps designers to identify and specify how the human and the system should work together, focusing on the control strategies and interactions required. Conclusions: The use of our approach facilitates the design of human-in-the-loop solutions. Our method is practical at earlier stages of the software life cycle since it allows domain experts to focus on the problem and not on the solution.
  • Resumen
    Improving query performance on dynamic graphs
    Barquero, Gala; Troya, Javier; Vallecillo, Antonio. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Querying large models efficiently often imposes high demands on system resources such as memory, processing time, disk access or network latency. The situation becomes more complicated when data are highly interconnected, e.g. in the form of graph structures, and when data sources are heterogeneous, partly coming from dynamic systems and partly stored in databases. These situations are now common in many existing social networking applications and geo-location systems, which require specialized and efficient query algorithms in order to make informed decisions on time. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to improve the memory consumption and time performance of this type of queries by reducing the amount of elements to be processed, focusing only on the information that is relevant to the query but without compromising the accuracy of its results. To this end, the reduced subset of data is selected depending on the type of query and its constituent filters. Three case studies are used to evaluate the performance of our proposal, obtaining significant speedups in all cases.
  • Resumen
    Traceability Link Recovery between Requirements and Models using an Evolutionary Algorithm Guided by a Learning to Rank Algorithm: Train Control and Management Case
    Marcén, Ana Cristina; Lapeña, Raúl; Pastor, Óscar; Cetina, Carlos. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    Traceability Link Recovery (TLR) has been a topic of interest for many years within the software engineering community. In recent years, TLR has been attracting more attention, becoming the subject of both fundamental and applied research. However, there still exists a large gap between the actual needs of industry on one hand and the solutions published through academic research on the other. In this work, we propose a novel approach, named Evolutionary Learning to Rank for Traceability Link Recovery (TLR-ELtoR). TLR-ELtoR recovers traceability links between a requirement and a model through the combination of evolutionary computation and machine learning techniques, generating as a result a ranking of model fragments that can realize the requirement. TLR-ELtoR was evaluated in a real-world case study in the railway domain, comparing its outcomes with five TLR approaches (Information Retrieval, Linguistic Rule-based, Feedforward Neural Network, Recurrent Neural Network, and Learning to Rank). The results show that TLR-ELtoR achieved the best results for most performance indicators, providing a mean precision value of 59.91+ACU, a recall value of 78.95+ACU, a combined F-measure of 62.50+ACU, and a MCC value of 0.64. The statistical analysis of the results assesses the magnitude of the improvement, and the discussion presents why TLR-ELtoR achieves better results than the baselines.
  • Artículo
    Generación automática de pruebas exhaustivas a partir modelos con contratos
    Díaz Gaspar, José; Muñoz, Paula; Vallecillo, Antonio. Actas de las XXV Jornadas de Ingeniería del Software y Bases de Datos (JISBD 2021), 2021-09-22.
    La complejidad de los sistemas ciberfísicos hacen necesario mejores sistemas de prueba, y en particular su automatización. Este articulo propone el uso de las Pruebas basadas en modelos para la generación automática de pruebas exhaustivas a partir de las pre- y postcondiciones de las operaciones, y de sus invariantes.