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A Flexible Billing Life Cycle for Cloud Services using Augmented Customer Agreements (Resumen)

El constante ritmo de evolución de la computación en la nube hace necesario que los términos de los servicios relativos a su precio y facturación se puedan ajustar dinámicamente, considerando cambios en aspectos como las infraestructuras de los proveedores, requisitos de los clientes, o las políticas de descuentos, entre otros. En este contexto, los contratos o acuerdos con clientes (en inglés Customer Agreements o CA) se usan para regular la provisión de servicios en la nube, incluyendo en ellos información referida al nivel de servicio acordado en los Acuerdos de Nivel de Servicio (SLA en inglés), los modelos de precios o los términos de facturación. Aunque existen varias propuestas académicas y herramientas industriales que ofrecen soporte a la definición de modelos de precios y facturación para servicios en la nube, hay carencias importantes en el nivel de personalización e integración de herramientas de monitorización automática en este proceso de facturación.En este artículo presentamos una propuesta altamente flexible para definir el ciclo de vida y proceso de facturación, la cual se basa en CAs que incluyen no sólo términos relativos al SLA, sino también a los modelos de precios y facturación, los cuales son altamente personalizables y pueden contener también compensaciones (en forma de descuentos o cargos adicionales). Además, hemos desarrollado una herramienta de monitorización y análisis automático que ha sido validada en un escenario real en la industria. Finalmente, en el artículo analizamos el rendimiento de nuestra herramienta y comparamos nuestra propuesta con más de 50 herramientas industriales, destacando las ventajas obtenidas gracias al acercamiento basado en reglas que hemos empleado.

Autores: José María García / Octavio Martín-Díaz / Pablo Fernandez / Carlos Müller / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Billing - Cloud Services - customer agreements - Monitoring - Pricing - Service Level Agreements

A Service Level Agreement Driven Framework to Customise Cloud Service Billing

Cloud service providers offer to their customers a variety of pricing policies, which range from the simple, yet widely used pay-as-you-go schema to complex discounted models. When executing the billing process, stakeholders have to consider usage metrics and service level objectives in order to obtain the correct billing and conform to the service level agreement in place. The more metrics, discount and compensations rules are added to the pricing schema, the more complex the billing generation results. In this paper we present a monitoring-based solution that enables the dynamically definition of both service level objectives and discount rules, so that providers can customise the billing generation process in terms of the service level agreement they offer. We validate our proposal in a real-world scenario, introducing a micro-service based software solution deployed in a Kubernetes cluster.

Autores: José María García / Octavio Martín-Díaz / Pablo Fernandez / Carlos Müller / Antonio Ruiz-Cortés / 
Palabras Clave: Billing - Cloud Services - Monitoring - Pricing - Service Level Agreements

MEdit4CEP-Gam: A model-driven approach for user-friendly gamification design, monitoring and code generation in CEP-based systems

AUTHORSAlejandro Calderón, Juan Boubeta-Puig & Mercedes RuizJOURNALInformation and Software Technology (vol. 95, pp. 238-264, 2018). IF: 2.627 (2017). Q1 (16/104) in “Computer Science, Software Engineering” category.DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2017.11.009ABSTRACTContext: Gamification has been proven to increase engagement and motivation in multiple and different non-game contexts such as healthcare, education, workplace, and marketing, among others. However, many of these applications fail to achieve the desired benefits of gamification, mainly because of a poor design.Objective: This paper explores the conceptualization, implementation and monitoring phases of meaningful gamification strategies and proposes a solution for strategy experts that hides the implementation details and helps them focus only on what is crucial for the success of the strategy. The solution makes use of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) and Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology.Method: An easy-to-use graphical editor is used to provide the high-level models that represent the design of the gamification strategy and its deployment and monitoring. These models contain the event pattern definitions to be automatically transformed into code. This code is then deployed both in a CEP engine to detect the conditions expressed in such patterns and in an enterprise service bus to execute the corresponding pattern actions.Results: The paper reports on the use of both a graphical modeling editor for gamification domain definition and a graphical modeling editor for gamification strategy design, monitoring and code generation in event-based systems. It also shows how the proposal can be used to design and automate the implementation and monitoring of a gamification strategy in an educational domain supported by a well-known Learning Management System (LMS) such as Moodle.Conclusion: It can be concluded that this unprecedented model-driven approach leveraging gamification and CEP technology provides strategy experts with the ability to graphically define gamification strategies, which can be directly transformed into code executable by event-based systems. Therefore, this is a novel solution for bringing CEP closer to any strategy expert, positively influencing the gamification strategy design, implementation and real-time monitoring processes.

Autores: Alejandro Calderón / Juan Boubeta-Puig / Mercedes Ruiz / 
Palabras Clave: Complex Event Processing - Gamification - Graphical modelling editor - Model-Driven Engineering - Monitoring - Strategy design

CloudWave: Agile Service Engineering for the Future Internet

After achieving initial market penetration, Cloud Computing stakeholders now call for a next generation of Infrastructure and Software as a Service offering (IaaS and SaaS). CloudWave, an EU-funded FP7 research project, looks to dynamically adapt cloud services to their environment, resulting in improved service quality and optimized resource use. This is supported with an enhanced cloud monitoring that provides holistic analytics of IaaS and SaaS layer services running on the cloud, leading to CloudWave’s innovative, automated adaptation of the infrastructure and application, as well as enabling DevOps-like data and interfaces for the developer. DevOps-like data and interfaces for the developer.

Autores: Francisco Javier Nieto / James Ahtes / 
Palabras Clave: Cloud Computing - DevOps - IaaS - Monitoring - Optimization - QoS

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