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Semantics of structured normal logic programs

In this paper we provide semantics for normal logic programs enriched with structuring mechanisms and scoping rules. Specifically, we consider constructive negation and expressions of the form QG in goals, where Q is a program unit, G is a goal and stands for the so-called embedded implication. Allowing the use of these expressions can be seen as adding block structuring to logic programs. In this context, we consider static and dynamic rules for visibility in blocks. In particular, we provide new semantic definitions for the class of normal logic programs with both visibility rules. For the dynamic case we follow a standard approach. We first propose an operational semantics. Then, we define a model-theoretic semantics in terms of ordered structures which are a kind of intuitionistic Beth structures. Finally, an (effective) fixpoint semantics is provided and we prove the equivalence of these three definitions. In order to deal with the static case, we first define an operational semantics and then we present an alternative semantics in terms of a transformation of the given structured programs into flat ones. We finish by showing that this transformation preserves the computed answers of the given static program.

A Declarative Debugger for Concurrent Erlang Programs

Erlang is a concurrent language with features such as actor model concurrency, no shared memory, message passing communication, high scalability and availability. However, the development of concurrent programs is a complex and error prone task. In this paper we present a declarative debugging approach for concurrent Erlang programs. Our debugger asks questions about the validity of transitions between the different points of the program that involve message passing and/or process creation. The answers, which represent the intended behavior of the program, are compared with the transitions obtained in an actual execution of the program. The differences allow us to detect program errors and to point out the pieces of source code responsible for the bugs. In order to represent the computations we present a semantic calculus for concurrent Core Erlang programs. The debugger uses the proof trees in this calculus as debugging trees used for selecting the questions asked to the user. The relation between the debugging trees and the semantic calculus allows us to establish the soundness of the approach. The theoretical ideas have been implemented in a debugger prototype.